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8. Keteleeria Carrière, Rev. Hort. 37: 449. 1866.

油杉属 you shan shu

Trees evergreen; bark longitudinally fissured; crown broad; branches irregular, long; branchlets weakly ridged and grooved with poorly defined pulvini and small, circular leaf scars; short branchlets absent. Leaves spirally and usually ± pectinately arranged, or occasionally almost radially spreading, linear to lanceolate, flattened, midvein raised on both sides, stomatal lines usually all abaxial, in 2 bands separated by midvein, sometimes also a few adaxial lines present, vascular bundle 1, resin canals 2, sublateral, marginal. Pollen cones lateral or terminal, 4-8 in umbellate clusters, arising from a single bud; pollen 2-saccate. Seed cones terminal, solitary, erect, cylindric or conical-cylindric, maturing in 1st year; rachis breaking off near base or slowly disintegrating. Seed scales woody, persistent. Bracts ligulate-spatulate, 1/2-3/5 as long as seed scales, apex cuspidate or 3-lobed. Seeds triangular-oblong, covered on 1 side by wing, together as long as seed scales; wing lustrous, semitrullate or cuneate, leathery-membranous. Cotyledons 2-4. Germination hypogeal. 2n = 24*.

Three to five species: China, Laos, Vietnam; five species (three endemic) in China.

1 Leaves narrowly linear-lanceolate or lanceolate; seed scales at middle of cones rhombic-ovate or narrowly so, apex ± emarginate   1 Keteleeria hainanensis
+ Leaves linear; seed scales variable in shape, apex entire, erose-denticulate, or slightly concave.   (2)
2 (1) Seed scales compressed orbicular, oblong, or rhombic-orbicular, widest at or above middle, as wide as or wider than long, apex entire, truncate-rounded, or ± convex; wing cuneate; leaves 1.5-4 cm   2 Keteleeria fortunei
+ Seed scales variously shaped, widest below or rarely at middle, as long as or longer than wide, distal margin erose-denticulate, emarginate, or entire, apex ± narrowed, recurved; wing semitrullate; leaves often longer.   (3)
3 (2) Seed scales rhombic-ovate, distinctly longer than wide, apex subacute, erose-denticulate; leaves 4-6.5 cm, margin not recurved, apex usually ± mucronate   3 Keteleeria evelyniana
+ Seed scales subcordate, rhombic-subcordate, or -ovate, as long as or slightly longer than wide, apex obtuse, entire or concave, rarely weakly denticulate; leaves usually shorter, margin slightly recurved, apex obtuse or truncate.   (4)
4 (3) Branchlets densely rusty brown pubescent in 1st or 2nd year; seed scales black-brown, pentagonal-ovate, densely rusty brown pubescent abaxially, apex concave   4 Keteleeria pubescens
+ Branchlets glabrous or slightly pubescent in 1st or 2nd year; seed scales brown-yellow, variously shaped but not pentagonal, glabrous abaxially, apex often ± recurved   5 Keteleeria davidiana

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