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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 17 | Lamiaceae

38. Leonurus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 584. 1753.

益母草属 yi mu cao shu

Leonurus japonicus

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs annual, biennial, or perennial, erect. Leaves 3-7-lobed, basal ± palmately lobed, usually deciduous at anthesis; stem leaves entire, incised, or 3-lobed. Verticillasters many flowered, in long spikes; bracteoles subulate or spinescent, rigid or flaccid. Calyx obconical or tubular-campanulate, 5-veined, obscurely 2-lipped; upper lip straight, 3-toothed; lower lip 2-toothed, teeth coalescent, spreading or slightly spreading. Corolla white, reddish, to purplish, 2-lipped, tube exserted; upper lip oblong, obovate, or ovate-orbicular, margin entire, straight, villous or glabrous; lower lip straight or spreading, spotted, 3-lobed, lobes oblong-ovate or middle lobe shallowly cordate, larger than ovate lateral lobes. Stamens 4, anterior 2 longer, posterior 2 parallel; anther cells 2, parallel. Style apex equally 2-cleft, lobes subulate. Nutlets acutely triquetrous, base cuneate, apex truncate.

About 20 species: Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, South America; 12 species in China.

1 Calyx indistinctly 2-lipped; anterior teeth not spreading; corolla tube not dilated, with or without distinct hairy annulus inside, if hairy annulus present then horizontal; upper lip of corolla oblong, base inconspicuously constricted; lower lip of corolla limb nearly straight; middle lobe much larger than lateral lobes, apex conspicuously emarginate, margin membranous; stamens nearly straight; leaves 3-lobed.   (2)
+ Calyx distinctly 2-lipped; anterior teeth strongly spreading; corolla tube distinctly oblique hairy annulate inside, conspicuously dilated above hairy annulus; upper lip of corolla obovate, base constricted; lower lip of corolla limb horizontally spreading, its 3 lobes subequal, oblong-ovate, margin revolute; anterior stamens projected, reflexed; leaves 5-7-lobed.   (7)
2 (1) Corolla less than 1 cm; without hairy annulus inside, puberulent   1 Leonurus chaituroides
+ Corolla more than 1 cm, distinctly ± horizontally scaly annulate inside.   (3)
3 (2) Leaves 3-lobed, lobes pinnately divided.   (4)
+ Leaves many lobed, lobes incised or coarsely serrate-dentate.   (5)
4 (3) Lobules of leaves more than 3 mm wide; floral leaves entire or rarely few dentate; corolla 1-1.2 cm; lower lip ca. as long as upper lip; calyx appressed puberulent   2 Leonurus japonicus
+ Lobules of leaves 1-3 mm wide, linear; floral leaves conspicuously 3-partite, lobules linear; corolla ca. 1.8 cm; lower lip ca. 3/4 as long as upper lip; calyx densely pilose especially at middle   3 Leonurus sibiricus
5 (3) Calyx teeth 5-10 mm; corolla 2.5-2.8 cm, reddish or reddish purple; leaves not corrugate, herbaceous   6 Leonurus macranthus
+ Calyx teeth 3-5 mm; corolla 1.5-2.1 cm, white, somewhat purple lineate; leaves corrugate, rigid.   (6)
6 (5) Plants densely villous   4 Leonurus villosissimus
+ Plants hirsute or strigose-hirtellous   5 Leonurus pseudomacranthus
7 (1) Inflorescences densely lanate-villous; bracteoles flaccid   12 Leonurus pseudopanzerioides
+ Inflorescences not lanate-villous; bracteoles rigid.   (8)
8 (7) Bracteoles and calyxes appressed pubescent, setose   8 Leonurus wutaishanicus
+ Bracteoles and calyxes appressed pubescent or appressed pubescent, white villous.   (9)
9 (8) Leaves 7-palmatilobed to 1/3 of their radius; lobes irregularly coarse dentate   7 Leonurus urticifolius
+ Leaves distinctly 5-palmatipartite from 2/3 to nearly entire radius; lobes pinnatilobulate, lobules linear to broadly lanceolate.   (10)
10 (9) Leaves numerous, lower stem leaves not early deciduous, lobes broadly cuneate, lobules broadly lanceolate; anterior teeth of calyx dilated in flower   10 Leonurus turkestanicus
+ Leaves few, lower stem leaves early deciduous, lobes narrowly cuneate to rhombic, lobules lanceolate to linear-lanceolate; anterior calyx teeth inconspicuously dilated in flower.   (11)
11 (10) Basal part of stems, nodes, rachises of inflorescences, and calyces appressed pubescent, subpatent white villous   11 Leonurus deminutus
+ Stems and calyxes appressed gray pubescent   9 Leonurus glaucescens

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