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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 18 | Scrophulariaceae

27. Linaria Miller, Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4. 2. 1754.

柳穿鱼属 liu chuan yu shu

Herbs, annual or perennial. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled, often sessile; veins 1 or several and campylodromous. Inflorescences spicate, racemose, or rarely capitate. Calyx 5-lobed almost to base. Corolla tube tubular, base spurred; limb 2-lipped; lower lip convex, dilated toward center of upper lip, almost closed at throat, and making corolla personate, 3-lobed, densely glandular hairy; upper lip erect, 2-lobed. Stamens 4, anterior 2 longer; anthers anterior and posterior connivent in 2 pairs, locules parallel, divergent after dehiscence. Stigma apex often emarginate. Capsule ovoid or globose, apically dehiscing by irregular pores, valves irregular. Seeds numerous, flattened, often disclike with a broadly winged margin, rarely 3-angled and wingless or reniform and with a thickened margin.

About 100 species: northern temperate zones, mainly in Asia and Europe; ten species in China.

1 Leaves opposite or whorled at least basally.   (2)
+ Leaves alternate.   (3)
2 (1) Leaf blade linear; seeds disclike, broadly winged at margin; corolla spur 10-15 mm   7 Linaria vulgaris
+ Leaf blade ovate to oblong; seeds reniform, thickened at margin; corolla spur 3-6 mm   9 Linaria japonica
3 (1) Corolla spur 2-6 mm; inflorescence axis and pedicels with long glandular hairs.   (4)
+ Corolla spur more than 7 mm; inflorescence axis and pedicels glabrous or sparsely with short glandular hairs (densely glandular villous in L. buriatica).   (5)
4 (3) Calyx lobes linear-lanceolate, less than 2 mm wide; corolla spur 5-6 mm   5 Linaria thibetica
+ Calyx lobes lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 2-3 mm wide; corolla spur 2-4 mm   6 Linaria yunnanensis
5 (3) Leaves ovate-lanceolate, distinctly 3-veined; seeds 3-angled   10 Linaria genistifolia
+ Leaves lanceolate to linear, mostly 1-veined; seeds disclike.   (6)
6 (5) Flowers purple to purple-red.   (7)
+ Flowers yellow.   (8)
7 (6) Plants 30-50 cm tall; corolla spurs 10-15 mm, straight   1 Linaria bungei
+ Plants 15-20 cm tall; corolla spurs 7-8 mm, slightly curved at tip   2 Linaria kulabensis
8 (6) Plants glabrous except for corolla; calyx lobes narrowly oblong to ovate   3 Linaria longicalcarata
+ Inflorescence axes, pedicels, or calyces glandular hairy, rarely glabrous; calyx lobes linear to ovate-lanceolate.   (9)
9 (8) Seeds smooth in center; calyx lobes elliptic-lanceolate, apex acute to obtuse   4 Linaria incompleta
+ Seeds verrucose in center; calyx lobes linear-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, apex acute to acuminate.   (10)
10 (9) Stems often more than 20 cm tall, branched from middle or apically; inflorescences, pedicels, and calyces glabrous or sparsely short glandular hairy; calyx lobes lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, more than 1.5 mm wide   7 Linaria vulgaris
+ Stems often less than 20 cm tall, many branched at base; inflorescences, pedicels, and calyces densely long glandular hairy; calyx lobes linear-lanceolate, 1-1.5 mm wide   8 Linaria buriatica

  • List of lower taxa


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