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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 2-3 | Lycopodiaceae

3. Lycopodium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1100. 1753.

石松属 shi song shu

Diphasiastrum Holub; Palhinhaea Franco & Vasconcellos.

Plants small to large. Main stems creeping or erect, sparsely or densely leafy. Lateral branches ascending or erect, once to multiple times dichotomously branched, terete, complanate or subcomplanate. Leaves on lateral branches and branchlets spirally arranged, subulate, triangular, lanceolate, or linear, papery to leathery, midrib indistinct, base cuneate, decurrent, adnate, sessile, margin entire or toothed, apex acuminate. Strobili solitary or aggregated, erect or nodding, terete, sessile or stalked. Sporophylls different from trophophylls, ovate or broadly lanceolate, imbricate, margin membranous and irregularly toothed, apex caudate.

About 40-50 species: widely distributed in temperate and tropical climates and tropical mountains; 14 species (two endemic) in China.

The following taxon is excluded from the present treatment, pending further research: Lycopodium clavatum Linnaeus var. divaricatum Raciborski (Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenzorg 1: 244. 1898), described from Jiangxi (Pingxiang).

1 Branchlets ?complanate   (2)
+ Branchlets cylindric   (6)
2 (1) Branchlets obviously complanate; every fertile branch with (1-)3-12 strobili   (3)
+ Branchlets complanate or subcylindric; every fertile branch with 1-3 strobili   (4)
3 (2) Stolons completely or mostly subterranean; leaves on stolon spatulate or ovate, membranous or thickly membranous, grayish brown or dark brown; sterile branchlets light green or grayish green abaxially; every fertile branch with (1-)3-5(or 6) strobili.   10 L. complanatum
+ Stolons above ground; leaves on stolon subulate, nearly leathery, green; young sterile branchlets gray abaxially; every fertile branch with (4-)8-12 strobili.   11 L. multispicatum
4 (2) Branchlets plus leaves complanate and dorsiventral; sterile leaves scalelike, leathery, adnate to branchlets; strobili binate.   12 L. alpinum
+ Branchlets plus leaves complanate or subcylindric; sterile leaves subulate or linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, papery, not or slightly adnate to branchlets; strobili solitary or 3 per fertile branchlet   (5)
5 (4) Branchlets plus leaves subcylindric and not dorsiventral; sterile leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, acute at apex; strobili solitary.   13 L. veitchii
+ Branchlets plus leaves complanate and dorsiventral; sterile leaves subulate, aciculate at apex; strobili 3 per fertile branchlet.   14 L. yueshanense
6 (1) Strobili pendulous   (7)
+ Strobili erect   (8)
7 (6) Leaves subulate to linear, 3-5 ?ca. 0.4 mm, straight or slightly bent upward, papery.   8 L. cernuum
+ Leaves subulate, 2-3 ?0.5-0.8 mm, falcate, thickly papery to leathery.   9 L. hainanense
8 (6) Stems erect   (9)
+ Stems creeping   (10)
9 (8) Lateral branches mostly attached at a right angle with main branch or angled downward, whole branches forming a semi-orbicular shape.   1 L. obscurum
+ Lateral branches mostly angled upward, whole branches forming a terete shape.   2 L. verticale
10 (8) Every fertile branch with 2-6(-8) strobili; strobili not solitary, with stipes   (11)
+ Strobili solitary and without stipes   (12)
11 (10) Main branches 2 or 3 times dichotomously branched; leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, thin and soft; every fertile branch with (3 or)4-8 strobili at different positions of branch; strobili 2-8 cm, with long stipes; sporophylls 2.5-3.5 ?ca. 2 mm, with long arista at top.   6 L. japonicum
+ Main branches 1 or 2 times dichotomously branched; leaves lanceolate, thick and hard; every fertile branch with 2(or 3) strobili at equal positions of branch; strobili 3.5-4.5 cm, almost without stipes or with short stipes; sporophylls ca. 1.5 ?1.3 mm, with short arista at top.   7 L. clavatum
12 (10) Leaves denticulate on margin.   3 L. annotinum
+ Leaves entire on margin   (13)
13 (12) Leaves acerose, ascending; sporophylls papery, with broader membranous transparent erose margins.   4 L. neopungens
+ Leaves lanceolate, angled upward and amplexicaul; sporophylls thinly leathery, with very narrow membranous transparent margins.   5 L. zonatum

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