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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 24 | Amaryllidaceae

4. Lycoris Herbert, Bot. Mag. 47: 5 sub t. 2113. 1819.

石蒜属 shi suan shu

Herbs perennial, bulbiferous. Bulbs subglobose to ovoid; tunic brown to black-brown. Leaves appearing before or after anthesis, ligulate. Flowering stem erect, simple, solid. Umbel terminal, 4--8-flowered; involucres 2, membranous. Perianth white, creamy, gold, pink, or bright red, funnelform; lobes oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic, margin sometimes undulate; ring of 6 perianthal scales or fimbriae sometimes present at throat of tube. Stamens inserted at throat of perianth tube; filament filiform; anther versatile. Ovary with few ovules. Style slender; stigma capitate, very small. Fruit a capsule, 3-valved, usually 3-angled, loculicidal. Seeds black, subglobose.

About 20 species: China, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, Myanmar, Pakistan, Thailand, Vietnam; 15 species (ten endemic) in China.

1 Flowers actinomorphic; perianth lobes apically slightly recurved, margin basally minutely undulate or not undulate.   (2)
+ Flowers zygomorphic; perianth lobes recurved, margin undulate.   (6)
2 (1) Margin of perianth lobes not undulate.   (3)
+ Margin of perianth lobes basally minutely undulate.   (4)
3 (2) Perianth pale purple but apically blue, tube 1--1.5 cm; leaves ca. 1 cm wide   14 Lycoris sprengeri
+ Perianth white or yellow, tube 4--6 cm; leaves 1.5--2 cm wide   15 Lycoris longituba
4 (2) Leaves first appearing in autumn and then reappearing in spring; perianth purple   11 Lycoris squamigera
+ Leaves appearing in spring; perianth yellow or white.   (5)
5 (4) Perianth yellow, tube 2.5--3.5 cm; leaves ca. 2 cm wide   12 Lycoris anhuiensis
+ Perianth white, gradually changing to yellowish pink, tube ca. 1 cm; leaves ca. 1.2 cm wide   13 Lycoris incarnata
6 (1) Leaves appearing in autumn; stamens obviously longer than perianth.   (7)
+ Leaves appearing in spring; stamens shorter to slightly longer than perianth.   (11)
7 (6) Perianth yellow or light rose red.   (8)
+ Perianth bright red, white, or ocherous.   (9)
8 (7) Perianth yellow; leaves ensiform, ca. 60 × 2 cm, apex acuminate   4 Lycoris aurea
+ Perianth light rose red; leaves ligulate, ca. 20 × 1 cm, apex rounded   5 Lycoris x rosea
9 (7) Perianth bright red; leaves narrowly ligulate, ca. 0.5 cm wide   1 Lycoris radiata
+ Perianth white or ocherous; leaves ligulate, 1.2--1.5 cm wide.   (10)
10 (9) Perianth ocherous; leaves green   2 Lycoris straminea
+ Perianth white; leaves dark green   3 Lycoris x houdyshelii
11 (6) Stamens shorter than perianth; leaf midvein not distinctly pale.   (12)
+ Stamens nearly as long as to slightly longer than perianth; leaf midvein distinctly pale (except in L. albiflora).   (13)
12 (11) Perianth pink in bud, becoming creamy at anthesis, then gradually fading to white, lobes without pink stripes   9 Lycoris caldwellii
+ Perianth white with red stripes in bud, fading to white at anthesis, lobes abaxially with scattered, pink stripes   10 Lycoris shaanxiensis
13 (11) Perianth pink in bud, becoming creamy as buds develop, then gradually fading to white, lobes adaxially with scattered, pink stripes, abaxially with pink midvein   8 Lycoris x albiflora
+ Perianth yellow, lobes with or without stripes or spots.   (14)
14 (13) Perianth lobes without red stripes; leaves green, ligulate, ca. 3.5 × 2 cm   6 Lycoris chinensis
+ Perianth lobes abaxially with red stripes or brushlike spots; leaves dark green, narrowly ligulate, 24--29 × 1--1.2 cm   7 Lycoris guangxiensis

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