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33. Marsdenia R. Brown, Prodr. 460. 1810.

牛奶菜属 niu nai cai shu

Lianas. Inflorescences terminal or extra-axillary, umbel-like, paniculate, or racemelike, pedunculate. Sepals overlapping, basal glands or scales often present. Corolla urceolate or campanulate, throat often hairy; lobes twisted to right. Corona lobes 5, erect, acuminate, fleshy, attached to gynostegium. Filaments connate into a tube; anthers erect, appendages inflexed; pollinia 2 per pollinarium, often oblong, erect. Stigma head flat, convex, or beaked. Follicles mostly thick, acuminate, smooth or longitudinally winged.

About 100 species: Asia, America, tropical Africa; 25 species in China.

1 Inflorescences very congested, bracts and bracteoles leaflike, hiding rachis and flowers; calyx twice as long as corolla; apex of corolla lobes incised   1 Marsdenia incisa
+ Inflorescences relatively lax, bracts and bracteoles small and not hiding rachis and flowers; calyx much shorter than corolla; apex of corolla lobes entire.   (2)
2 (1) Stigma head produced into long, threadlike to cylindric beak exserted from anther appendages.   (3)
+ Stigma head depressed, hemispherical or short conical, not long beaked.   (7)
3 (2) Corona lobes as long as anthers; stems short yellowish tomentose.   (4)
+ Corona lobes shorter than anthers; stems glabrous to minutely puberulent or pubescent along two lines.   (5)
4 (3) Corolla tube uniformly pilose inside; follicles densely tomentose   10 Marsdenia oreophila
+ Corolla throat with a dense reflexed pubescence, interior of tube glabrous toward base; follicles glabrous   11 Marsdenia officinalis
5 (3) Corolla tube longer than lobes; peduncle 1.5-3 cm   7 Marsdenia yunnanensis
+ Corolla tube shorter than lobes; peduncle 2.5-6 cm.   (6)
6 (5) Corolla ca. 12 mm; pollinia reniform   8 Marsdenia griffithii
+ Corolla 5-6 mm; pollinia slender   9 Marsdenia formosana
7 (2) Corolla tube not longer than lobes.   (8)
+ Corolla tube longer than lobes.   (15)
8 (7) Corolla lobes 9-12 mm.   (9)
+ Corolla lobes 3-7 mm.   (10)
9 (8) Leaf blade 5.5-10 cm wide; inflorescences 7-15 cm; corolla interior pubescent; sepals ca. 8 × 6 mm   14 Marsdenia koi
+ Leaf blade 2-3 cm wide; inflorescences 4-4.5 cm; corolla glabrous; sepals 3-4 × 2-2.5 mm   12 Marsdenia medogensis
10 (8) Base of leaf blade rounded to truncate; inflorescences unbranched.   (11)
+ Base of leaf blade cordate; inflorescences usually obviously branched.   (13)
11 (10) Plants tomentose; corolla yellowish white, 6-8 mm; back of corona lobes rounded   19 Marsdenia tenii
+ Plants glabrous; corolla violet or purple, 10-15 mm; back of corona lobes winged or with a hooklike spur at base.   (12)
12 (11) Peduncle to 10 cm; corona lobes as long as anthers, dorsiventrally compressed, with a hooklike dorsal spur at base   2 Marsdenia longipes
+ Peduncle to 3 cm; corona lobes reaching base of anthers, laterally compressed without spur at base   3 Marsdenia brachyloba
13 (10) Corolla very densely hairy outside; corona lobes exserted from corolla tube, apex 2(-4)-toothed   5 Marsdenia tenacissima
+ Corolla glabrous outside; corona lobes included within corolla tube, apex entire.   (14)
14 (13) Peduncle to 16 cm; corolla interior pilose; corona lobes shorter than corolla tube   15 Marsdenia hainanensis
+ Peduncle ca. 1.5 cm; corolla interior glabrous; corona lobes longer than corolla tube   13 Marsdenia yuei
15 (7) Leaf blade palmately 3(-5)-veined at base, base deeply cordate; corona lobes with a hooklike spur at base of back.   (16)
+ Leaf blade pinnately veined; corona lobes flattened or slightly curved at base of back, without a spur.   (17)
16 (15) Branches, petiole, abaxial leaf surface, and outside of corolla densely pubescent to tomentose; corolla lobes ca. 2 × 1 mm   4 Marsdenia cavaleriei
+ Branches, leaves, and corolla glabrous; corolla lobes 3-4 × 1.5-2 mm   6 Marsdenia stenantha
17 (15) Corona lobes as long as or longer than anther appendages.   (18)
+ Corona lobes shorter than anther appendages.   (21)
18 (17) Leaf blade elliptic-oblong or oblong-lanceolate; inflorescences ca. 7 mm; peduncle ca. 0.2 cm; corolla ca. 1.5 mm   20 Marsdenia pseudotinctoria
+ Leaf blade ovate to oblong or ovate-triangular; inflorescences more than 3 cm; peduncle 1-5 cm; corolla 3.5-13 mm.   (19)
19 (18) Leaf blade 1-2.5 × ca. 1 cm, papillate abaxially; petiole 0.5-1 cm; corolla tube sparsely retrorse pubescent inside; corona ringlike, as high as anthers and with undulating margin   21 Marsdenia pulchella
+ Leaf blade 5-13 × ca. 2.7 cm, not papillate; petiole 1-4 cm; corolla tube with a ring of hairs or densely pubescent at throat; corona of separate subulate to ovate lobes.   (20)
20 (19) Corolla urceolate, 3.5-4(-6) mm; leaf blade papery, often blue when dry   22 Marsdenia tinctoria
+ Corolla subcampanulate, ca. 9 mm; leaf blade membranous, not blue when dry   23 Marsdenia glomerata
21 (17) Corolla tube interior uniformly hairy; inflorescences branched; corolla throat densely long hairy; leaves without blue pigment.   (22)
+ Corolla tube interior with hairs restricted to lines or patches; inflorescences unbranched; corolla throat with a thin ring of hairs only; leaves often with blue pigment when dried.   (24)
22 (21) Leaf blade broadly ovate to suborbicular, approximately as long as wide   16 Marsdenia tomentosa
+ Leaf blade ovate-cordate to oblong, distinctly longer than wide.   (23)
23 (22) Stems and undersides of leaves finely yellowish tomentose; corolla lobes hairy on both sides   17 Marsdenia sinensis
+ Stems and leaves sparsely hairy when young, glabrescent; corolla lobes glabrous, contrasting sharply with prominently hairy throat   18 Marsdenia lachnostoma
24 (21) Leaf blade abaxially tomentose; inflorescence rachis 3-7 cm, clearly spiral   24 Marsdenia schneideri
+ Leaf blade abaxially glabrous to puberulent; inflorescence rachis mostly less than 1 cm, if longer then rachis straight.   (25)
25 (24) Corolla urceolate   25 Marsdenia glabra
+ Corolla campanulate   22 Marsdenia tinctoria

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