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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 7 | Papaveraceae

3. Papaver Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 506. 1753.

罂粟属 ying su shu

Authors: Mingli Zhang & Christopher Grey-Wilson

Herbs, annual, biennial, or perennial, rarely monocarpic. Roots fusiform or attenuate, simple. Stems 1 or more, erect or ascending, terete, branched or not, very constricted or extended, usually setose, rarely glabrous, ivory malodorous lactiferous, with leaves or not. Basal leaves petiolate, usually glaucous adaxially, variously shaped, both surfaces setose, pinnatilobate, pinnatipartite, pinnatisect, or bipinnatifid, sometimes incised, serrate, or crenate, rarely entire. Cauline leaves if present, similar to basal leaves, but usually sessile, sometimes amplexicaul. Flowers solitary, rarely in cymose racemes, pedunculate or sometimes scapose, erect, extended, usually setose. Flower buds nutant, ovoid or spherical. Sepals 2, rarely 3, shedding as flowers open, mostly setose. Petals 4, rarely 5 or 6, on short receptacles, often caducous, mostly red, rarely white, yellow, orange, or lavender, vivid and beautiful, usually obovate, in 2 whorls, outer whorl larger. Stamens many; filaments white, yellow, green, purple, or red, occasionally blackish, mostly filamentous; anthers spheroidal or oblong. Ovary 1-loculed, superior, usually ovoid, rarely terete-oblong; carpels 4-18, united, setose or glabrous; ovules many, astylous; stigmas 4-18, actinomorphic, united into compressed or steepled disk covering ovary; disk margin crenate or divided. Capsule narrowly terete, obovoid, or spherical, setose or glabrous, rarely spiny, obviously costate or not costate, poricidal under actinomorphic stigmas. Seeds many, black, brown, dark gray, or white, reniform, small, longitudinally striate or alveolate; albumen white, fleshy and rich in oil; embryo hidden in albumen.

About 100 species: mainly in C and S Europe to temperate Asia, some in the Americas and Oceania, one in South Africa; seven species (three cultivated) in China.

1 Perennial herb, ± stemless; leaves all basal; flowers scapose   (2)
+ Annual or rarely perennial herb with an elongated stem; leaves basal and cauline; flowers solitary on leafy stem at branch apices, or axillary   (4)
2 (1) Plant 20-60 cm tall.   5 P. nudicaule
+ Plant 5-15 cm tall   (3)
3 (2) Petals yellow or orange; flowers 3-5 cm in diam..   6 P. canescens
+ Petals pistachio-colored; flowers 2-3 cm in diam..   7 P. radicatum
4 (1) Perennial herb with simple stems; petals 4-6, red.   4 P. orientale
+ Annual herb, generally branched; petals 4   (5)
5 (4) Plant glabrous or sparsely setose; stems simple, with 1 or few flowers; cauline leaves amplexicaul, margin irregularly undulate-serrate; filaments white.   1 P. somniferum
+ Plant setose; stems branched, often multiflorous; cauline leaves pinnatifid, not amplexicaul; filaments mauve or purplish   (6)
6 (5) Ovary and capsule glabrous; flower buds oblong-obovoid; leaf blade bipinnatipartite.   2 P. rhoeas
+ Ovary and capsule setose; flower buds oval; leaf blade pinnatipartite or pinnatisect.   3 P. pavoninum

Lower Taxa


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