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40. Paraboea (C. B. Clarke) Ridley, J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 43: 4, 63. 1905.

蛛毛苣苔属 zhu mao ju tai shu

Didymocarpus Wallich sect. Paraboea C. B. Clarke in A. & C. de Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 5: 105. 1883; Buxiphyllum W. T. Wang & C. Z. Gao; Chlamydoboea Stapf.

Herbs, rarely subshrubs, perennial, epipetric or terrestrial, rhizomatous, stemmed or stemless. Leaves few to many, basal, clustered at stem apex, or spread along stem and opposite, rarely spirally arranged, equal to subequal in a pair; leaf blade adaxially woolly to glabrous, abaxially woolly, pannose, or velutinous, hairs dense, interwoven, usually branched at least near base, base attenuate to cuneate, rarely rounded to peltate-auriculate. Inflorescences cymes, sometimes umbel-like, corymbiform, or paniculate, lax, rarely dense, axillary or in terminal panicles, 1- to many flowered; bracts 1-3, opposite. Calyx actinomorphic, rarely slightly zygomorphic, 5-sect from base or from near base, rarely 2-lipped; segments equal. Corolla white, blue, or purple, zygomorphic, inside glabrous to glandular puberulent; tube oblique, campanulate, not swollen, longer than to occasionally nearly equalling limb, 2-13 mm in diam.; limb 2-lipped; adaxial lip 2-lobed; usually slightly shorter, rarely 1/4 X length to slightly longer than abaxial lip; abaxial lip 3-lobed, lobes equal or central lobe longer, apex rounded. Stamens 2, adnate to abaxial side of corolla tube near base, included; anthers dorsifixed, coherent, thecae divaricate, confluent at apex, dehiscing longitudinally; connective not projecting; staminodes 1-3, seldom absent, adnate to adaxial side of corolla tube. Disc inconspicuous. Ovary narrowly ovoid to oblong, rarely conical, 1-loculed; placentas 2, parietal, projecting inward, 2-cleft. Stigma 1, terminal, capitate, seldom subligulate, undivided. Capsule straight in relation to pedicel, linear to narrowly oblong or lanceolate, much surpassing calyx, dehiscing loculicidally to base; valves 4, spirally twisted, seldom straight. Seeds unappendaged.

About 87 species: Bhutan, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; 18 species in China.


1 Capsule not twisted (unknown in P. clavisepala and P. tribracteata).   (2)
+ Capsule spirally twisted.   (8)
       
2 (1) Subshrubs; peduncle 2-2.7 cm; bracts 1 or 2, ca. 0.3 mm; calyx segments 1-1.2 mm; corolla 4-5 mm, outside sparsely glandular puberulent; leaf blade 0.9-2.5 X 0.4-1 cm   1 Paraboea velutina
+ Herbs, rarely subshrubs; peduncle 2.5-21 cm; bracts 2(or 3), 2-25 mm; calyx segments 2-6 mm; corolla 9-18 mm, outside glabrous; leaf blade 1-33.5 X 0.3-10 cm.   (3)
       
3 (2) Stems 17-50 cm; leaves opposite, spread along stem; bracts 7-25 mm   9 Paraboea clavisepala
+ Stems to 10 cm or absent; leaves spiral near stem apex or basal; bracts 1-13 mm.   (4)
       
4 (3) Leaf blade base peltate-auriculate or peltate and rounded to cuneate, rarely merely cordate to cuneate; bracts 1-3(-4) mm.   (5)
+ Leaf blade base attenuate to broadly cuneate, sometimes ultimately rounded; bracts 5-13 mm.   (6)
       
5 (4) Leaf blade 6-33.5 X 3-14.3 cm; lateral veins 11-18 on each side of midrib; petiole 1-9 cm; calyx 2-lipped, adaxial lip 2-toothed, teeth ca. 0.7 mm, abaxial lip 3-sect from base, segments ca. 2 mm; staminodes 2, ca. 2 mm; ovary ca. 5 mm   2 Paraboea peltifolia
+ Leaf blade 1-5 X 0.3-2.2 cm; lateral veins 4-6 on each side of midrib; petiole 0.3-0.9 cm; calyx 5-sect from base, segments lanceolate, 2-3.5 mm; staminode 1, ca. 0.2 mm; ovary ca. 1.5 mm   3 Paraboea filipes
       
6 (4) Leaf blade narrowly oblanceolate, 1.7-2.4 cm wide; lateral veins 3 or 4 on each side of midrib; bracts and calyx glabrous outside; corolla red; bracts 3; staminodes 2   16 Paraboea tribracteata
+ Leaf blade oblanceolate or obovate, (1.5-)2.8-8.8 cm wide; lateral veins 5-11 on each side of midrib; bracts and calyx pannose or woolly outside; corolla purplish or purple-blue; bracts 2(or 3); staminodes 3.   (7)
       
7 (6) Plants stemless; leaf blade abaxially densely brownish woolly, veins margin rust-brown woolly; peduncle 2.5-9 cm, tomentose; filaments ca. 2 mm, glandular puberulent   4 Paraboea nutans
+ Plants stemless or stems to 10 cm; leaf blade abaxially pannose; peduncle 8-21 cm, pannose to sparsely pannose, glabrescent; filaments 6-7 mm, glabrous   15 Paraboea dictyoneura
       
8 (1) Leaves opposite, spread along stem.   (9)
+ Leaves basal or mostly crowded at stem apex.   (13)
       
9 (8) Bracts early deciduous or to 10 mm; corolla tube 3-5 mm; filaments 1.5-3 mm, anthers 2-2.5 mm; ovary 2.5-3 mm.   (10)
+ Bracts (7-)10-50 mm; corolla tube 5-13 mm; filaments 6-10 mm, anthers 3-4 mm; ovary 4-6 mm.   (11)
       
10 (9) Cymes appearing terminal; peduncle 5-13 cm; capsule 2-2.5 cm; leaf blade 4-14 X 2-5 cm, adaxially grayish woolly, glabrescent   5 Paraboea swinhoei
+ Cymes axillary; peduncle 4-5 cm; capsule 0.8-1.5 cm; leaf blade 2-7 X 1-3 cm, adaxially densely pubescent   6 Paraboea changjiangensis
       
11 (9) Calyx segments oblong-spatulate to flabellate or obovate, 7-15 X 4-7 mm; stems to 1 m; peduncle 2.5-6(-8) cm, brown pannose   7 Paraboea sinensis
+ Calyx segments lanceolate or narrowly oblong to narrowly triangular, 1.8-3 X 0.5-1 mm; stems to 40 cm; peduncle 5-20 cm, cobwebby-woolly, glabrescent.   (12)
       
12 (11) Bracts narrowly ovate to obovate, 3-5 X 1-2 cm; filaments glabrous to glandular puberulent; leaf blade apex obtuse to acute   11 Paraboea glutinosa
+ Bracts lanceolate to ovate, 0.7-3 X 0.4-1.3 cm; filaments bearded; leaf blade apex acuminate to acute   12 Paraboea martinii
       
13 (8) Corolla 4.5-5.2 mm; ovary and capsule mealy; capsule 0.6-1.2 cm   13 Paraboea thirionii
+ Corolla 8-25 mm; ovary sparsely glandular puberulent or puberulent to glabrous (unknown in P. paramartinii); capsule glabrous, 1.5-6.5 cm (unknown in P. clavisepala and P. tribracteata).   (14)
       
14 (13) Stems to 50 cm; petiole (0.5-)1-10 cm; leaf blade base decurrent to subcordate, sometimes oblique; filaments glandular puberulent to bearded, rarely glabrous (unknown in P. paramartinii).   (15)
+ Plants stemless or stems to 15 cm; petiole absent to 4.5 cm; leaf blade base attenuate to cuneate, sometimes ultimately rounded; filaments glabrous.   (19)
       
15 (14) Peduncle 3-4 cm; bracts 2 at apex of peduncle, another pair at first branch   10 Paraboea paramartinii
+ Peduncle 4-20 cm; bracts 2.   (16)
       
16 (15) Leaf blade adaxially densely puberulent to pubescent, not cobwebby-woolly; bracts 7-12 X 4-11 mm   8 Paraboea rufescens
+ Leaf blade adaxially cobwebby-woolly, glabrescent, sometimes also strigose; bracts 7-50 X 2-20 mm.   (17)
       
17 (16) Leaf blade abaxially densely grayish woolly; calyx segments spatulate to suboblong, 3-4 mm   9 Paraboea clavisepala
+ Leaf blade abaxially brown pannose; calyx segments lanceolate or narrowly oblong to narrowly triangular, 1.8-3 mm.   (18)
       
18 (17) Bracts narrowly ovate to obovate, 3-5 X 1-2 cm; filaments glabrous to glandular puberulent; leaf blade apex obtuse to acute   11 Paraboea glutinosa
+ Bracts lanceolate to ovate, 0.7-3 X 0.4-1.3 cm; filaments bearded; leaf blade apex acuminate to acute   12 Paraboea martinii
       
19 (14) Leaf blade narrowly oblanceolate, 1.7-2.4 cm wide; lateral veins 3 or 4 on each side of midrib; bracts 3, outside glabrous; corolla red   16 Paraboea tribracteata
+ Leaf blade oblanceolate to obovate or spatulate, rarely lanceolate or ovate, 1.2-8 cm wide; lateral veins 4-10 on each side of midrib; bracts 2(or 3), outside woolly or pannose; corolla bluish to deep purple.   (20)
       
20 (19) Leaf blade leathery, adaxially glabrous to glabrescent; corolla glandular puberulent outside; ovary puberulent; peduncle 12-30 cm; pedicel 1-4 cm   18 Paraboea hainanensis
+ Leaf blade thick papery, adaxially woolly, glabrescent; corolla glabrous outside; ovary glabrous; peduncle 3-21 cm; pedicel 0.5-2 cm.   (21)
       
21 (20) Bracts ovate to elliptic, ca. 1.5 mm; corolla adaxial lip lobes 0.5-2 mm; capsule 1.5-2.5 cm   14 Paraboea neurophylla
+ Bracts linear to subulate or lanceolate to narrowly oblong, 2-13 mm; corolla adaxial lip lobes 3-6 mm; capsule 1.5-6 cm.   (22)
       
22 (21) Leaf blade oblanceolate, rarely obovate; bracts 5-13 mm; calyx 3-6 mm, outside woolly; staminodes 3   15 Paraboea dictyoneura
+ Leaf blade spatulate, rarely lanceolate, obovate, or ovate, bracts 2-5 mm; calyx 2-3 mm, outside puberulent; staminodes 2   17 Paraboea crassifolia

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