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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 18 | Gesneriaceae

27. Petrocosmea Oliver, Hooker's Icon. Pl. 18: t. 1716. 1887.

石蝴蝶属 shi hu die shu

Vaniotia H. Léveillé.

Herbs, perennial, terrestrial or epipetric, rhizomatous, stemless. Leaves few to many, basal; leaf blade puberulent to pilose, rarely sericeous or velutinous, base cuneate to cordate, rarely peltate. Inflorescences usually lax, rarely subumbel-like, axillary, 1-4(-7)-flowered cymes; bracts usually 2, opposite or alternate. Calyx actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic, 5-sect from base, rarely 3-lobed to 3-sect from base; segments equal, rarely unequal. Corolla blue to purple or white, zygomorphic, inside glabrous, sometimes puberulent; tube broadly tubular, not swollen, shorter than limb, 2-5 mm in diam.; limb 2-lipped; adaxial lip 2-lobed, equalling or much shorter than abaxial lip; abaxial lip 3-lobed, lobes equal or subequal, apex rounded. Stamens 2, adnate to abaxial side of corolla tube near base, included; anthers basifixed, coherent at apex, thecae parallel, confluent at apex or not, dehiscing longitudinally; connective not projecting; staminodes (absent or 1-)3, adnate to adaxial side of corolla tube. Disc absent. Ovary conical to broadly ovoid, 1-loculed; placentas 2, parietal, projecting inward, 2-cleft. Stigma 1, terminal, capitate, often nearly globose, undivided. Capsule straight in relation to pedicel, narrowly ellipsoid to oblong to ovoid, nearly as long as calyx, dehiscing loculicidally to base; valves 2, straight, not twisted. Seeds unappendaged.

Twenty-seven species: China, NE India, Myanmar, Thailand, S Vietnam; 24 species in China.


1 Anthers constricted near apex, forming a short thick beak.   (2)
+ Anthers not constricted near apex.   (4)
       
2 (1) Calyx zygomorphic, 3-parted or 3-sect   24 Petrocosmea kerrii
+ Calyx actinomorphic, 5-sect.   (3)
       
3 (2) Leaf blade 7.5-8.5 cm; bracts subulate to lanceolate, 3-4 mm; corolla black at throat, not purple at base, sparsely puberulent outside, scaly inside   22 Petrocosmea menglianensis
+ Leaf blade 8-17.5 cm; bracts ovate to lanceolate, 5-12 mm; corolla not black at throat, dark purple adaxially near base, glabrous outside, densely minutely yellow glandular and sparsely pubescent below abaxial lip inside   23 Petrocosmea grandifolia
       
4 (1) Adaxial corolla lip 9-12 mm, abaxial lip 13-15 mm   6 Petrocosmea grandiflora
+ Adaxial corolla lip 0.7-5 mm, abaxial lip 2-12 mm.   (5)
       
5 (4) Abaxial corolla lip nearly equalling adaxial.   (6)
+ Abaxial corolla lip at least 2 X longer than adaxial.   (10)
       
6 (5) Calyx glabrous or nearly so outside; corolla glabrous outside   2 Petrocosmea oblata
+ Calyx puberulent outside; corolla puberulent or sparsely so outside.   (7)
       
7 (6) Leaf blade veins abaxially conspicuous   1 Petrocosmea nervosa
+ Leaf blade veins abaxially subconspicuous or indistinct.   (8)
       
8 (7) Petiole 0.5-9 cm; anthers triangular; leaf blade 1-3.5 X 1-4.4 cm   3 Petrocosmea flaccida
+ Petiole 0.5-3.5(-4.5) cm; anthers oblong or oblong ovoid; leaf blade 0.7-3(-4) X 0.7-2.8(-3.8) cm.   (9)
       
9 (8) Corolla glabrous inside; ovary and base of style puberulent; bracts 2.5-4 mm; anthers ca. 3 mm; pistil 9-11 mm   4 Petrocosmea sinensis
+ Corolla puberulent on adaxial lip inside; ovary and style spreading villous; bracts 1.6-2 mm; anthers ca. 1.2 mm; pistil ca. 5.2 mm   5 Petrocosmea qinlingensis
       
10 (5) Adaxial corolla lip indistinctly 2-lobed, emarginate, or undivided.   (11)
+ Adaxial corolla lip 2-parted near base or at least in apical 1/3.   (14)
       
11 (10) Leaf blade base cordate or rounded; calyx segments narrowly lanceolate; style glabrous.   (12)
+ Leaf blade base cuneate, broadly cuneate, rarely rounded; calyx segments linear or narrowly triangular; style puberulent near base.   (13)
       
12 (11) Capsule 7-11 mm; calyx 5-7 mm; corolla tube ca. 6.5 mm; bracts 2.5-4 mm; leaf blade 1.5-3.8(-4.9) X 1-4.5 cm; lateral veins abaxially conspicuous; cymes (1 or)2-4-flowered   18 Petrocosmea iodioides
+ Capsule 3.5-5 mm; calyx 2.5-3 mm; corolla tube to 3 mm; bracts 1-2 mm; leaf blade 0.7-2(-2.6) X 0.5-1.5(-1.9) cm; lateral veins inconspicuous; cymes 1(or 2)-flowered   19 Petrocosmea martinii
       
13 (11) Peduncle, outer calyx surface, petiole, and leaf blade brownish yellow appressed puberulent; pedicel 0.4-1.2 cm; capsule to 12 mm   20 Petrocosmea sericea
+ Peduncle, outer calyx surface, petiole, and leaf blade adaxially whitish to tan pubescent, abaxially densely puberulent; pedicel 1.4-2.5 cm; capsule 5-8(-10) mm   21 Petrocosmea minor
       
14 (10) All leaves peltate   17 Petrocosmea coerulea
+ Most or all leaves not peltate.   (15)
       
15 (14) Filaments puberulent.   (16)
+ Filaments glabrous.   (20)
       
16 (15) Adaxial corolla lip 2-parted to near base; anthers 2.5 X or more longer than filaments; petiole 1-8 cm; peduncle 4.5-10 cm   7 Petrocosmea duclouxii
+ Adaxial corolla lip 2-lobed in apical 1/3-1/2; anthers 0.5-2 X filament length; petiole 0.3-5.5 cm; peduncle 2.2-7 cm.   (17)
       
17 (16) Pistil 7-10 mm; capsule ca. 13 mm; petiole 1.2-5.5 cm; leaf blade 0.5-4 X 0.6-3 cm   14 Petrocosmea begoniifolia
+ Pistil 4-6 mm; capsule 4-6 mm; petiole 0.3-3.7 cm; leaf blade 0.4-2.5 X 0.4-2.2 cm.   (18)
       
18 (17) Style glabrous; anthers ca. 1.8 mm; petiole 0.3-2.5 cm; leaf blade 0.4-1.7 cm   15 Petrocosmea sichuanensis
+ Style pilose basally; anthers 0.5-1.2 mm; petiole 0.3-3.7 cm; leaf blade 0.5-2.5 cm.   (19)
       
19 (18) Leaf lateral veins conspicuous; bracts ca. 0.8 mm; anthers 1-1.2 mm; pistil 5.2-6 mm   8 Petrocosmea mairei
+ Leaf lateral veins inconspicuous; bracts ca. 2 mm; anthers 0.5-0.6 mm; pistil ca. 4 mm   13 Petrocosmea cavaleriei
       
20 (15) Anthers 0.6-1 mm; leaf blade 0.4-1.2 cm; petiole 0.1-2 cm.   (21)
+ Anthers 1-2 mm; leaf blade 0.5-4 cm; petiole 1-6 cm.   (22)
       
21 (20) Corolla white, puberulent inside, tube ca. 2 mm, abaxial lip ca. 2.8 mm, adaxial lip ca. 6.8 mm; leaf blade 6-12 mm; peduncle to 8 cm; pedicel 2-3.5 cm; style pubescent near base   12 Petrocosmea longipedicellata
+ Corolla blue, glabrous inside, tube ca. 4 mm, abaxial lip ca. 0.7-1.5 mm, adaxial lip 2-2.8 mm; leaf blade 4-6 mm; peduncle 1.5-2.4 cm; pedicel 0.2-0.7 cm; style glabrous   16 Petrocosmea confluens
       
22 (20) Pistil ca. 12 mm, ovary ca. 5 mm; capsule 10-12 mm; calyx segments ca. 5 mm; leaf blade 0.5-4 cm   10 Petrocosmea rosettifolia
+ Pistil 5-7 mm, ovary 1-2 mm; capsule 4-6 mm; calyx segments 2-4 mm; leaf blade 0.5-2.8 cm.   (23)
       
23 (22) Cymes 1-flowered; leaf blade base broadly cuneate, margin shallowly crenulate to entire; staminodes 3   9 Petrocosmea forrestii
+ Cymes 1-4-flowered; leaf blade base cordate to broadly cuneate, margin crenulate; staminodes 2   11 Petrocosmea barbata

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