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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 19 | Plantaginaceae

1. Plantago Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 112. 1753.

车前属 che qian shu

Bougueria Decaisne; Psyllium Miller.

Herbs, or rarely small shrubs or arborescent, annual, biennial, or perennial, acaulescent or infrequently stemmed, with a taproot, caudex, or only numerous fibrous roots. Leaves simple; petiole vaginate at base; leaf blade ovate, elliptic, oblong, lanceolate, linear, or subulate, margin entire, repand, erose, or toothed, rarely pinnately or palmately cleft. Inflorescences arising from rosette or leaf axil of stem, spikes, narrowly cylindric, capitate, or rarely 1-flowered. Corolla salverform or tubular, persistent; tube cylindric or constricted at throat, as long as or slightly longer than calyx; limb 4-parted. Stamens (1 or 2 or)4; anthers ovoid, suborbicular, ellipsoid, or oblong. Ovary 2-loculed or rarely 1-locular but sometimes with an apical third compartment, placentation axile or rarely basal, with 1 to numerous ovules per locule. Fruit a pyxis, rarely an indehiscent capsule or nutlet, with 1 to numerous seeds. Seeds peltately inserted; testa mucilaginous when wet; embryo straight; cotyledons parallel or vertical to ventral (hilum) side.

About 200 species: cosmopolitan; 22 species (three endemic, four introduced) in China.

1 Stem erect, with elongated internodes; leaves opposite, rarely in whorls of 3; corolla brownish.   22 P. arenaria
+ Stem absent or very short; leaves usually in basal rosette, rarely densely alternate; corolla white or yellowish   (2)
2 (1) Plant with only fibrous roots   (3)
+ Plant with a taproot   (7)
3 (2) Leaf blade lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 3-4 × as long as wide; corolla yellowish; anthers 1.8-2.2 mm.   7 P. fengdouensis
+ Leaf blade broadly ovate to broadly elliptic, less than 2 × as long as wide; corolla white; anthers 0.8-1.5 mm   (4)
4 (3) Flower sessile; pyxis circumscissile at or just below middle, with (8-)12-14(-34) seeds; seeds 0.8-1.2 mm.   3 P. major
+ Flower shortly pedicellate; pyxis circumscissile near base, with (2-)5-15 seeds; seeds (1.2-)1.3-2 mm   (5)
5 (4) Sepals acuminate at apex, keel projecting beyond apex; anthers ca. 0.8 mm.   5 P. cavaleriei
+ Sepals obtuse or acute at apex, keel not projected at apex; anthers 1-1.5 mm   (6)
6 (5) Petiole not winged at middle; corolla lobes narrowly triangular; anthers 1-1.2 mm.   4 P. asiatica
+ Petiole broadly winged; corolla lobes ovate to broadly ovate; anthers ca. 1.5 mm.   6 P. gentianoides
7 (2) Leaf blade broadly ovate to elliptic, veins 7-11; petiole retrorsely pubescent; stamens adnate to near base of corolla tube   (8)
+ Leaf blade obovate, elliptic, lanceolate, or linear, veins 1-5(or 7); petiole with patent, appressed upward, or rarely entangled trichomes; stamens adnate to middle of corolla tube or more apically   (9)
8 (7) Plants turning black when dry; petiole longer than or equaling blade, not winged; bracts glabrous.   1 P. maxima
+ Plants not turning black when dry; petiole much shorter than blade, winged; bracts pubescent.   2 P. media
9 (7) Corolla tube pubescent or lobes hirsute-villous outside   (10)
+ Corolla glabrous   (11)
10 (9) Leaf blade papery, sparsely villous; corolla lobes densely hirsute-villous outside; stamens adnate to near apex of corolla tube.   20 P. lagocephala
+ Leaf blade leathery, sparsely strigillose or glabrous; corolla tube pubescent; stamens adnate to middle of corolla tube.   21 P. maritima
11 (9) Lower sepals connate to near apex; stamens adnate to middle of corolla tube.   16 P. lanceolata
+ All sepals distinct; stamens adnate to or near apex of corolla tube   (12)
12 (11) Bracts with linear to subulate apex, much longer than flower.   17 P. aristata
+ Bracts with obtuse or acute apex, shorter, equaling, or slightly longer than flower   (13)
13 (12) Leaf blade glabrous or abaxially pubescent, vein 1; seeds 7-30 per pyxis, fusiform   (14)
+ Leaf blade hairy on both surfaces, veins (1 or)3-7; seeds 1-4 per pyxis, ellipsoid to oblong   (15)
14 (13) Bracts broadly ovate to suborbicular; sepals broadly elliptic to orbicular; pyxis with 12-30 seeds.   14 P. polysperma
+ Bracts ovate; sepals obovate; pyxis with 7-15 seeds.   15 P. tenuiflora
15 (13) Leaf blade elliptic, ovate-lanceolate, obovate-lanceolate, or spatulate, usually more than 1 cm wide   (16)
+ Leaf blade ± linear to narrowly lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, usually less than 1 cm wide   (18)
16 (15) Leaf blade spatulate to obovate-lanceolate, veins (3 or)5; flowers heteromorphic; corolla yellowish, lobes erect when flowers fertile; seeds 2 per pyxis, ventral surface grooved.   8 P. virginica
+ Leaf blade elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, rarely obovate-elliptic, veins 5 or 7; flowers homomorphic; corolla white, lobes patent to reflexed; seeds 4 per pyxis, ventral surface flat or prominent but not grooved   (17)
17 (16) Bracts triangular-ovate; corolla lobes 0.5-1 mm; anthers white; pyxis 4-5 mm.   9 P. depressa
+ Bracts ovate-elliptic; corolla lobes 1-1.5 mm; anthers reddish brown; pyxis 2.5-3 mm.   10 P. camtschatica
18 (15) Leaf blade arachnoid or silky villous; spikes cylindric to narrowly cylindric   (19)
+ Leaf blade villous or lanate; spikes capitate or ovoid at first but later shortly cylindric   (20)
19 (18) Leaf blade arachnoid, veins 1 or 3, margin entire or repand- crenate; spikes 1-2.5(-5) cm; flowers dense; anthers ca. 1.2 mm.   13 P. arachnoidea
+ Leaf blade sparsely silky villous, veins 3 or 5, margin remotely and retrorsely denticulate or triangular dentate; spikes 4-10 cm; flowers usually interrupted at base; anthers ca. 2 mm.   12 P. perssonii
20 (18) Keel not extending to apex of sepals; seeds 3 or 4 per pyxis, black, (1-)1.5-2 mm, ventral face flat; cotyledons parallel to ventral side.   11 P. komarovii
+ Keel extending to apex of sepals; seeds 1 or 2 per pyxis, yellowish brown to brown, (2-)3-4 mm, ventral face with a groove; cotyledons vertical to ventral side   (21)
21 (20) Plants with short stems, usually branched at base; corolla lobes orbicular-ovate.   18 P. ovata
+ Plants stemless; corolla lobes elliptic to narrowly ovate.   19 P. minuta

  • List of lower taxa


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