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28. Ponerorchis H. G. Reichenbach, Linnaea. 25: 227. 1852.

小红门兰属 xiao hong men lan shu

Authors: Xinqi Chen, Phillip J. Cribb & Stephan W. Gale

Ponerorchis chusua

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Chusua Nevski.

Herbs, terrestrial, small to medium-sized, slender. Tubers subglobose, ovoid, or ellipsoid, not divided, fleshy. Stem usually erect, terete, glabrous, with 1-3 tubular sheaths near base and 1-5 leaves above. Leaves basal or cauline, alternate or rarely subopposite, basally contracted into clasping sheath, glabrous to sparsely pubescent. Inflorescence terminal, glabrous or pubescent; rachis laxly or densely 1- to many flowered; floral bracts lanceolate to ovate. Flowers resupinate, secund or not, small to medium-sized; ovary twisted, often slightly arcuate, glabrous or pubescent. Sepals free; dorsal sepal erect, often concave; lateral sepals spreading. Petals often connivent with dorsal sepal and forming a hood; lip entire or 3- or 4-lobed, spurred at base or rarely spurless; spur usually as long as ovary. Column stout; anther erect, base firmly adnate to apex of column, with 2 parallel locules; pollinia 2, granular-farinaceous, sectile, each attached to a viscidium by a slender caudicle; each viscidium enclosed in a sticky globe, both globes enclosed in a common bursicle formed by folding of rostellar arms; stigma concave, beneath rostellum; rostellum protruding, with 2 arms; auricles 2, usually prominent, one on each side of column. Capsule erect.

About 20 species: from the Himalayas through C and E China to Korea and Japan; 13 species (ten endemic) in China; one additional species (endemic) is incompletely known.

From observations of many fresh flowers of this genus in the field, we infer that the bursicle formed by the rostellar arms is solitary but later becomes separate.

Incompletely known species

Ponerorchis exilis (Ames & Schlechter) S. C. Chen, P. J. Cribb & S. W. Gale, Fl. China 25: 97. 2009

细茎小红门兰 xi jing xiao hong men lan

Basionym: Orchis exilis Ames & Schlechter, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 4: 40. 1919.

Plants 20-35 cm tall. Tubers oblong. Stem ca. 10 cm, 2- or 3-leaved. Leaves cauline, alternate, widely spaced, linear to linear-ligulate, 5-10 × 0.5-0.8 cm, glabrous, apex acute. Inflorescence to 10 cm, with 1 or 2 foliaceous sterile bracts; rachis laxly 5-12-flowered; floral bracts suberect, lanceolate, nearly as long as ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers purplish red, small to medium-sized; ovary cylindric, ca. 8 mm including pedicel, glabrous. Dorsal sepal erect, elliptic, ca. 4 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals reflexed, oblique, elliptic-oblong, ca. 5 mm, apex obtuse. Petals erect, forming a hood with dorsal sepal, oblong-ovate, oblique, slightly shorter than dorsal sepal, margin ciliate, apex obtuse; lip 3-lobed above middle, ca. 6.5 × 6 mm, disk minutely papillose, base broadly cuneate; lateral lobes obliquely rhombic, apex obtuse; mid-lobe spreading, ovate-triangular, larger than lateral lobes, margin subentire, apex obtuse; spur pointing backward, cylindric, ca. 8 × 1.5 mm, ca. as long as ovary. Fl. unknown.

● C and NE Yunnan (Dongchuan, Kunming).

Although we accept this species, it is known only from the protologue; the type has not been seen by us.

1 Plants always 1-leaved; leaf basal, cordate, ovate, or elliptic; leaf adaxially often marked with purple spots, abaxially purplish red   (2)
+ Plants usually 2-5-leaved; if 1-leaved (some plants of P. tominagae, P. omeishanica, and P. chusua) then leaf cauline, linear, lanceolate, oblong, or elliptic; leaves green, lacking purple spots   (4)
2 (1) Leaf adaxially with off-white lines along principal veins; rachis 1-3-flowered; spur short, saccate, ca. 1 mm.   1 P. brevicalcarata
+ Leaf lacking lines along veins; rachis 2- to more than 20-flowered; spur pendulous, cylindric, 4-12 mm   (3)
3 (2) Inflorescence and ovary pubescent; flowers often secund; lip obtriangular-flabellate, 5-6 × 5-6 mm; spur pendulous, slightly bent forward, 4-6 mm.   2 P. monophylla
+ Inflorescence and ovary glabrous; flowers not usually secund; lip broadly oblong-ovate, 10-11 × 8-9 mm; spur horizontal, straight or slightly curved upward, occasionally slightly curved downward, 8-12 mm.   3 P. limprichtii
4 (1) Flowers whitish, creamy white, yellow, or yellowish green   (5)
+ Flowers pink, rose, purplish rose, purplish red, purple, or violet, rarely white   (7)
5 (4) Leaves basal, subopposite; rachis 1-flowered; petals broadly ovate, 8.5-15 mm; spur 12-25 mm.   4 P. chrysea
+ Leaves cauline, alternate, widely spaced, or rarely clustered near base of stem; rachis (1 or)2-8-flowered; petals ovate or narrowly ovate-lanceolate, 4.5-6.5 mm; spur 4-7 mm   (6)
6 (5) Stem (1-)2-6 cm; rachis (1 or)2-4-flowered; floral bracts to 12 mm, shorter than to slightly exceeding ovary; lip 8-12 mm; spur 4-5.5 mm.   6 P. tominagae
+ Stem 8-12 cm; rachis 4-8-flowered; floral bracts to 20 mm, basal ones conspicuously exceeding flowers; lip 5-6 mm; spur ca. 7 mm.   8 P. omeishanica
7 (4) Plants 3.5-6 cm tall; stem 1.5-2 cm; leaves basal, subopposite; lip not lobed.   5 P. crenulata
+ Plants (5-)8-45 cm tall; stem (2.5-)5-23 cm; leaves cauline, alternate, widely spaced; lip 3- or 4-lobed   (8)
8 (7) Petals glabrous   (9)
+ Petals papillose and/or with ciliate margins   (10)
9 (8) Lip broadly oblong to obovate, lobed above middle; mid-lobe oblong, square, or ovate, 1.8-3.5(-5) × 2-3.5(-6) mm, usually longer than broad.   7 P. chusua
+ Lip obtriangular to suborbicular, lobed toward apex; mid-lobe transversely oblong to ovate, 4-8 × 4-8 mm, usually broader than long.   10 P. kiraishiensis
10 (8) Floral bracts foliaceous, 20-40 mm, conspicuously exceeding flowers.   9 P. pugeensis
+ Floral bracts to 15 mm, shorter than to slightly exceeding ovary   (11)
11 (10) Stem and inflorescence green; rachis 2-6-flowered; ovary and pedicel 20-22 mm, densely minutely pubescent; sepals and petals densely minutely papillose on both surfaces.   11 P. sichuanica
+ Stem and inflorescence green with purple striations, purple, or purplish with dark striations; rachis 5-20-flowered; ovary and pedicel 6-15 mm, glabrous; sepals glabrous; petals glabrous apart from ciliate margins   (12)
12 (11) Lip oblong to obovate, 3-lobed below middle, 6-10 × 6-8 mm; lateral lobes ovate to suboblong; mid-lobe oblong to obovate-oblong, longer than broad; spur 8-12 mm.   12 P. takasagomontana
+ Lip ovate-orbicular, 3-lobed near middle, 9-15 × 8-12 mm; lateral lobes transversely oblong to subsquare; mid-lobe suborbicular, usually broader than long; spur 12-20 mm.   13 P. taiwanensis

  • List of lower taxa


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