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12. Roscoea Smith, Exot. Bot. 2: 97. 1806.

象牙参属 xiang ya shen shu

Roscoea cautleoides

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs small, with annual pseudostems from erect, reduced rhizome; roots fascicled, tuberous, fusiform. Ligule a curved line at junction of tubular leaf sheath and leaf blade; petiole absent; leaf blade oblong or lanceolate. Inflorescence terminal on pseudostems, a spike; peduncle short and enclosed by leaf sheaths to long and exserted; bracts persistent, 1-flowered; bracteoles absent. Calyx tubular, split on 1 side, apex 2- or 3-toothed. Corolla tube usually exserted from calyx, slender, wider at throat; central lobe erect, usually cucullate; lateral lobes spreading, narrower than central one, usually free. Lateral staminodes erect, petaloid. Labellum reflexed or not, cuneate, large, apex emarginate to 2-lobed. Filament short; anther linear; connective extended at base into a spur. Ovary cylindric or oblong, 3-loculed; ovules numerous per locule, superposed. Style filiform; stigma funnelform, margin ciliate. Capsule oblong, cylindric, or clavate, 3-valved. Seeds small, arillate.

About 18 species: Bhutan, China, India, Kashmir, Myanmar, Nepal, Sikkim, Vietnam; 13 species (eight endemic) in China.

1 Corolla tube 1.6--4(--5) cm; labellum usually less than 2.5 cm.   (2)
+ Corolla tube (3--)4--12.5 cm; labellum usually more than 2.5 cm.   (7)
2 (1) Plants usually less than 15 cm tall when mature.   (3)
+ Plants usually more than 15 cm tall when mature.   (5)
3 (2) Central lobe of corolla orbicular; labellum not reflexed   1 Roscoea alpina
+ Central lobe of corolla oblong; labellum slightly to conspicuously reflexed.   (4)
4 (3) Leaves obscurely to densely hairy especially when young; bracts elliptic; lateral staminodes oblong, 1--1.3 cm   2 Roscoea tibetica
+ Leaves glabrous; bracts tubular; lateral staminodes narrowly obovate-cuneate, ca. 1.4 cm   3 Roscoea kunmingensis
5 (2) Leaves appearing after anthesis, 3--6 cm wide; bracts much shorter than calyx   4 Roscoea humeana
+ Leaves appearing before anthesis, 1--2.8 cm wide; bracts longer than calyx.   (6)
6 (5) Lateral staminodes elliptic to obliquely obovate, 1--1.4 cm; labellum 1.3--2 × 0.8--1.2 cm, with white lines at throat   5 Roscoea scillifolia
+ Lateral staminodes obliquely spatulate, ca. 2 cm; labellum ca. 2.5 × 1.4 cm, without white lines at throat   6 Roscoea capitata
7 (1) Bracts obtuse or truncate at apex.   (8)
+ Bracts acute at apex.   (10)
8 (7) Leaves glaucous abaxially   7 Roscoea wardii
+ Leaves not glaucous abaxially.   (9)
9 (8) Leaves distinctly narrowed and petiolelike between sheath and blade; ligule prominent   8 Roscoea debilis
+ Leaves not narrowed and petiolelike between sheath and blade; ligule obscure   9 Roscoea forrestii
10 (7) Leaves auriculate   10 Roscoea auriculata
+ Leaves not auriculate.   (11)
11 (10) Leaves absent at anthesis   11 Roscoea praecox
+ Leaves present at anthesis.   (12)
12 (11) Leaves forming a rosette at apex of pseudostem; labellum not reflexed, lobes usually emarginate; stigma hooked   12 Roscoea schneideriana
+ Leaves not forming a rosette at apex of pseudostem; labellum reflexed, lobes usually not emarginate; stigma not hooked   13 Roscoea cautleoides

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