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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 2-3 | Selaginellaceae

1. Selaginella P. Beauvois, Prodr. Aethéogam. 101. 1805.

卷柏属 juan bai shu

Lycopodioides Boehmer, nom. rej.; Selaginoides Séguier; Stachygynandrum P. Beauvois ex Mirbel, nom. rej.

Morphological characters and geographic distribution are the same as those of the family.

Five subgenera are recognized. In a molecular phylogeny (Korall et al., Int. J. Pl. Sci. 160: 585-594. 1999), the isophyllous Selaginella subg. Selaginella (absent from China) and S. subg. Tetragonostachys Jermy are monophyletic, but the anisophyllous S. subg. Stachygynandrum Warburg and S. subg. Heterostachys Warburg are not monophyletic.

Six uncertain taxa, not included in the following key, are listed at the end of the account.

Uncertain taxa

Selaginella effusa Alston var. dulongjiangensis W. M. Chu (Fl. Yunnan. 20: 718. 2006), described from Gongshan, Yunnan.

Selaginella jugorum Handel-Mazzetti (Symb. Sin. 6: 8. 1929; Lycopodioides jugorum (Handel-Mazzetti) H. S. Kung), described from NW Yunnan.

Selaginella monospora Spring var. ciliolata W. M. Chu (Fl. Yunnan. 20: 719. 2006), described from Jingdong, Yunnan.

Selaginella somae Hayata (Icon. Pl. Formosan. 7: 101. 1918 [“somai”]), described from Taiwan.

Selaginella spinulosovena G. Q. Gou & P. S. Wang (Acta Bot. Yunnan. 27: 145. 2005), described from Ziyun, Guizhou.

Selaginella tibetica Ching & S. K. Wu (Fl. Xizang. 1: 25. 1983), described from Bomi, Xizang. = Selaginella hengduanshanicola W. M. Chu (Fl. Yunnan. 20: 718. 2006), described from Gongshan, Yunnan.

1 Sterile leaves monomorphic, spirally arranged, linear or linear-lanceolate, with long white apical seta   (2)
+ Sterile leaves dimorphic, arranged in 4 ranks, 2 dorsal and 2 ventral leaves, rarely nearly monomorphic, without long white apical seta   (4)
2 (1) Leaves thickly leathery, obtuse at apex.   1 S. sibirica
+ Leaves thinly leathery, acuminate at apex   (3)
3 (2) Apical seta ca. 1/3 as long as leaves.   2 S. vardei
+ Apical seta ca. 1/5 as long as leaves.   3 S. indica
4 (1) Stems and branches cylindrical, often reddish; sterile leaves nearly monomorphic, adpressed to stems and branches   (5)
+ Branches often compressed; leaves dimorphic, dorsal leaves ascending, ventral leaves spreading   (6)
5 (4) Leaves not white-margined.   4 S. sanguinolenta
+ Leaves distinctly white-margined.   5 S. albocincta
6 (4) Strobili lax, not distinct from sterile stems; sporophylls monomorphic or dimorphic, almost conform with sterile leaves at same rank (non-resupinate) (see also 42b)   (7)
+ Strobili compact, distinct from sterile stems; sporophylls in 4 ranks, monomorphic or dimorphic (dorsal sporophylls larger than ventral ones, rarely smaller)   (9)
7 (6) Strobili cylindrical; sporophylls monomorphic, smaller than ventral leaves.   6 S. helvetica
+ Strobili rather loosely dorsiventrally compressed; sporophylls dimorphic, nearly conform with sterile leaves at same rank   (8)
8 (7) Leaves denticulate at margin.   7 S. nipponica
+ Leaves shortly ciliolate at margin.   8 S. pseudonipponica
9 (6) Strobili tetragonal; sporophylls nearly monomorphic   (10)
+ Strobili dorsiventrally complanate; dorsal and ventral sporophylls dimorphic   (41)
10 (9) Stems forming rosettes, curling inward when dry   (11)
+ Stems not forming rosettes, not curling inward when dry   (12)
11 (10) Dorsal and ventral leaves denticulate at margin.   9 S. tamariscina
+ Dorsal leaves reflexed at margin; acroscopic margin of ventral leaves brown, membranous, lacerate.   10 S. pulvinata
12 (10) Main stems creeping or prostrate in basal portion to scandent; rhizophores borne throughout stems   (13)
+ Main stems erect, suberect, or ascending with short prostrate basal portion; rhizophores usually borne on basal to middle portions of main stem   (24)
13 (12) Main stems scandent, up to 1-2 m or longer   (14)
+ Main stems creeping, decumbent, or scandent, usually less than 1 m   (15)
14 (13) Axillary and ventral leaves with large basal auricles; dorsal leaves slightly white-margined; sporophylls ovate, acute or cuspidate; base of rhizophores without spines.   11 S. willdenowii
+ Axillary and ventral leaves with small basal auricles; dorsal leaves white-margined; sporophylls ovate-lanceolate, acuminate; base of rhizophores with a few spines.   12 S. helferi
15 (13) Plants xerophytic, curling when dry; leaves ciliolate at margin   (16)
+ Plants not xerophytic, not curling when dry; leaves entire or denticulate at margin   (18)
16 (15) Dorsal leaves slightly smaller than and overlapping ventral leaves; leaves slightly lacerate and densely long ciliolate at margin.   13 S. nummularifolia
+ Dorsal leaves much smaller than and not largely overlapping ventral leaves   (17)
17 (16) Stems and branches scarlet; ventral leaves reflexed; margin of leaves sparsely toothed and long ciliolate at acroscopic base, entire elsewhere.   14 S. rossii
+ Stems and branches stramineous; ventral leaves not reflexed; margin of leaves shortly ciliolate throughout.   15 S. sinensis
18 (15) Leaves entire   (19)
+ Leaves denticulate or ciliolate at margin   (21)
19 (18) Dorsal leaves auriculate at basiscopic base.   16 S. limbata
+ Dorsal leaves not auriculate   (20)
20 (19) Sporophylls not carinate on abaxial surface.   17 S. uncinata
+ Sporophylls carinate on abaxial surface.   18 S. hainanensis
21 (18) Stems not articulate; rhizophores borne on ventral side in axils of branches   (22)
+ Stems slightly articulate beneath branching; rhizophores borne on dorsal side in axils of branches   (23)
22 (21) Leaves not white-margined, leaves on main stems and lateral branches ciliolate at margin, those on ultimate branches often subentire.   19 S. siamensis
+ Leaves white-margined, denticulate or shortly ciliolate.   20 S. davidii
23 (21) Stems with a single vascular bundle.   21 S. remotifolia
+ Stems with 3 vascular bundles.   22 S. kraussiana
24 (12) Rhizophores borne on basal and middle portions of main stem or sometimes also on upper portion; leaves on main stem dimorphic   (25)
+ Rhizophores restricted to basal or lower portion of main stem or to prostrate rhizome; leaves on main stem monomorphic   (32)
25 (24) Plants erect; lateral branches regularly pinnately branched, twice forked, or simple; leaves entire or minutely denticulate at apex   (26)
+ Plants erect, suberect, or ascending with prostrate rhizome; lateral branches many times pinnately branched; leaves denticulate   (28)
26 (25) Main stems 3-5 mm in diam., apical part black when dry; stomata invisible on dorsal leaves.   23 S. picta
+ Main stems 2-3 mm in diam., apical part not black when dry; stomata on adaxial surface of dorsal leaves visible   (27)
27 (26) Lateral branchlets simple or forked, or basal branchlets often forked; dorsal leaves overlapping distally.   24 S. delicatula
+ Lateral branchlets simple, sometimes with irregular longer branches; dorsal leaves parallel, not overlapping distally.   25 S. wallichii
28 (25) Leaves subleathery, shiny when dry; dorsal leaves aristate, arista ca. 1/2 as long as leaves or longer.   26 S. commutata
+ Leaves herbaceous, not shiny when dry; dorsal leaves acuminate to aristate, arista very short   (29)
29 (28) Ventral leaves 4.5-7 mm.   27 S. rolandi-principis
+ Ventral leaves less than 4.5 mm   (30)
30 (29) Ventral leaves ovate-triangular or ovate-lanceolate; dorsal leaves aristate; surface of dorsal and ventral leaves scabrous.   28 S. scabrifolia
+ Ventral leaves ovate-oblong or oblong-falcate; dorsal leaves acuminate or very shortly aristate; surface of leaves glabrous or that of ventral leaves scabrous   (31)
31 (30) Dorsal and ventral leaves glabrous.   29 S. doederleinii
+ Ventral leaves scabrous.   30 S. trachyphylla
32 (24) Stems and branches pubescent   (33)
+ Stems and branches glabrous   (37)
33 (32) Main stems isotomously branched.   31 S. pubescens
+ Main stems pinnately branched   (34)
34 (33) Plants 45-100 cm high or more; axillary leaves biauriculate at base, ventral leaves auriculate at acroscopic base   (35)
+ Plants 10-45 cm high; axillary leaves not auriculate at base   (36)
35 (34) Leaf portion of main stems and branches pubescent on both sides; main stems zigzag; leaves white-margined.   32 S. trichoclada
+ Leaf portion of main stems glabrous, ventral side of branches pubescent; main stems not zigzag; leaves not white-margined.   33 S. pseudopaleifera
36 (34) Leaves thick, shrunken when dry; leaves on main stems peltate.   34 S. braunii
+ Leaves thin, not shrunken; leaves on main stems basifixed.   35 S. biformis
37 (32) Plants usually more than 50 cm high, main stems robust, up to 4-5 mm in diam.; branches including leaves 5-10 mm wide.   36 S. superba
+ Plants usually less than 50 cm high, main stems 1-2 mm in diam., not so robust; branches including leaves less than 5 mm wide   (38)
38 (37) Leaves on main stems approximate   (39)
+ Leaves on main stems distant   (40)
39 (38) Main stems reddish.   37 S. stauntoniana
+ Main stems stramineous.   38 S. involvens
40 (38) Leaves on main stems peltate at base, not white-margined, ciliolate, very shrunken when dry.   39 S. mairei
+ Leaves on main stems basifixed, white-margined, denticulate, not shrunken when dry.   40 S. moellendorffii
41 (9) Strobili non-resupinate, i.e., dorsal sporophylls smaller than ventral ones   (42)
+ Strobili resupinate, i.e., dorsal sporophylls larger than ventral ones   (46)
42 (41) Strobili rather lax, often forked (see also 6a)   (43)
+ Strobili shortly compact, solitary (or sometimes forked in S. prostrata)   (44)
43 (42) Fertile branches short, pinnately branched; leaves up to 3.2 ?1.8 mm, margin denticulate, shortly ciliolate at base.   41 S. pallidissima
+ Fertile branches erect or ascending, forked; leaves up to 2.3 ?1.2 mm, shortly ciliolate at margin, ciliolate at base.   42 S. laxistrobila
44 (42) Leaves denticulate at margin.   43 S. tama-montana
+ Leaves long ciliolate at margin   (45)
45 (44) Strobili less than 4 mm; sporophylls plane.   44 S. prostrata
+ Strobili usually over 8 mm, up to 25 mm; larger ventral sporophylls navicular.   45 S. longistrobilina
46 (41) Main stems erect or suberect; rhizophores restricted to basal or lower portion of main stems   (47)
+ Main stems prostrate or at least lower part prostrate, branches creeping or erect; rhizophores at intermittent intervals   (55)
47 (46) Plants more than 30 cm high   (48)
+ Plants usually less than 30 cm high   (49)
48 (47) Plants erect, 40-75 cm high; rhizophores restricted to basal portion of main stems.   46 S. decipiens
+ Plants suberect, 30-40 cm high; rhizophores present in lower part of main stems.   47 S. bodinieri
49 (47) Sporophylls strongly dimorphic, ventral sporophylls up to 1/2 as long as dorsal ones   (50)
+ Sporophylls not strongly dimorphic, ventral sporophylls ca. 2/3 as long as dorsal ones   (52)
50 (49) Plants up to 30 cm high; main stems robust; dorsal leaves obovate-aristate.   48 S. pennata
+ Plants 5-15(-25) cm high; main stems thin   (51)
51 (50) Ventral leaves up to 3 mm; sporophylls minutely denticulate.   49 S. leptophylla
+ Ventral leaves up to 3 mm; sporophylls sparsely ciliate.   50 S. minutifolia
52 (49) Main stems tuberous at base.   51 S. chrysocaulos
+ Main stems not tuberous at base   (53)
53 (52) Axillary leaves ovate-deltoid.   52 S. effusa
+ Axillary leaves ovate-lanceolate   (54)
54 (53) Plants erect, main stems simple, branched in upper portion; leaves on stems and branches rather distant; rhizophores restricted to basal portion of main stems; base of ventral leaves shortly ciliolate.   53 S. labordei
+ Plants ascending to erect, main stems branched in lower and upper portions; leaves on main stems rather approximate; rhizophores on lower portion of main stems; base of ventral leaves long ciliolate.   54 S. repanda
55 (46) Stems long creeping, fertile branches not erect, plants up to 30 cm or more; rhizophores on main stems and branches at intermittent intervals   (56)
+ Main stems and branches prostrate or fertile branches suberect, plants usually less than 20 cm, or main stems erect, normally less than 25 cm high; rhizophores on prostrate stems or restricted to basal portion of erect main stems   (61)
56 (55) Dorsal leaves obovate, long ciliolate in upper portion.   55 S. bisulcata
+ Dorsal leaves not as above   (57)
57 (56) Ultimate branches including leaves 10-15 mm wide.   56 S. megaphylla
+ Ultimate branches including leaves less than 8 mm wide   (58)
58 (57) Dorsal leaves long aristate; sporophyll-pteryx of dorsal sporophylls not reaching apex (incomplete)   (59)
+ Dorsal leaves acuminate or shortly aristate; sporophyll-pteryx of dorsal sporophylls reaching apex or almost so (complete)   (60)
59 (58) Basiscopic margin of ventral leaves entire.   57 S. ornata
+ Basiscopic margin of ventral leaves ciliolate.   58 S. amblyphylla
60 (58) Leaves glabrous.   59 S. monospora
+ Leaves scabrous.   60 S. trichophylla
61 (55) Prostrate stems very short, thin; plants small; fertile stems prominent   (62)
+ Plants not as above   (63)
62 (61) Sporangia only on ventral side of strobilus; sporophylls denticulate.   61 S. devolii
+ Sporangia on both sides of strobilus; sporophylls long ciliolate.   62 S. ciliaris
63 (61) Acroscopic base of ventral leaves not long ciliolate; leaves denticulate or shortly ciliolate at margin   (64)
+ Acroscopic base of ventral leaves long ciliolate   (68)
64 (63) Dorsal leaves rounded or obtuse at apex; leaves denticulate at margin.   63 S. kouytcheensis
+ Dorsal leaves acuminate or aristate; leaves denticulate or shortly ciliolate at margin   (65)
65 (64) Fertile branches short, complanate with sterile main stems and branches, creeping or ascending   (66)
+ Fertile branches long, erect   (67)
66 (65) Leaves shortly ciliolate at margin.   64 S. boninensis
+ Leaves minutely denticulate at margin.   65 S. heterostachys
67 (65) Dorsal leaves cordate at base, margin shortly ciliolate.   53 S. labordei
+ Dorsal leaves not cordate at base, margin minutely denticulate.   65 S. heterostachys
68 (63) Fertile branches erect; ventral leaves involute in dry conditions   (69)
+ Fertile branches creeping; ventral leaves not involute in dry conditions   (71)
69 (68) Basiscopic base of ventral leaves with few long cilia.   66 S. kurzii
+ Basiscopic base of ventral leaves shortly ciliolate, elsewhere subentire   (70)
70 (69) Sporophylls obviously dimorphic.   67 S. xipholepis
+ Sporophylls slightly dimorphic.   68 S. vaginata
71 (68) Ventral leaves oblong-falcate; dorsal leaves ovate-lanceolate.   69 S. drepanophylla
+ Ventral leaves not oblong-falcate; dorsal leaves ovate or suborbicular   (72)
72 (71) Leaves not white-margined, sparsely ciliolate.   70 S. chaetoloma
+ Leaves distinctly white-margined   (73)
73 (72) Ventral leaves denticulate at margin, bearing several long hairs at basal portion.   71 S. lutchuensis
+ Ventral leaves long ciliolate at margin.   72 S. albociliata

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