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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae

169. Tanacetum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 843. 1753.

菊蒿属 ju hao shu

Authors: Zhu Shi, Christopher J. Humphries & Michael G. Gilbert

Gymnocline Cassini; Pontia Bubani; Pyrethrum Zinn.

Herbs, perennial, subshrubs, or shrubs, lower parts somewhat woody; indumentum absent or of basifixed and/or medifixed hairs. Leaves alternate, rarely rosulate, pinnatifid to 3-pinnatisect, rarely entire. Synflorescences cymose, mostly flat-topped, sometimes reduced to a solitary capitulum. Capitula heterogamous or homogamous, radiate, disciform or discoid. Involucres campanulate; phyllaries in 3-5 rows, scarious margins broad or narrow, usually brown, less often white. Receptacle convex or flat, epaleate, usually pilose. Marginal florets in 1, very rarely 2, rows, or absent, female, fertile; lamina white or red, less often yellow, or absent, ovate, elliptic, or linear. Disk florets many, yellow, bisexual; corolla tubular, apex 5-lobed. Anther bases obtuse; apical appendage ovate-lanceolate or broadly lanceolate. Style branches linear, apex truncate. Achenes terete or obscurely 3-angled, 5-10(-12)-ribbed, often with sessile glands, never with myxogenic cells. Corona present, 0.1-0.4 mm, sometimes of free scales, rarely an adaxial auricle (very rarely absent).

About 100 species: N Africa, C Asia, Europe; 19 species (two endemic, two introduced) in China.

Tanacetum partheniifolium (Willdenow) Schultz Bipontinus (Tanaceteen, 56. 1844; Pyrethrum partheniifolium Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 3: 2156. 1803, "parthenifolium"; 伞房匹菊 san fang pi ju), native to C and SW Asia, and T. parthenium (Linnaeus) Schultz Bipontinus (Tanaceteen, 55. 1844; Matricaria parthenium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 890. 1753; 短舌匹菊 duan she pi ju), originating within Europe, possibly through selection from T. partheniifolium, are cultivated as ornamentals in China and are included in the following key. Tanacetum parthenium is used medicinally.

A gathering by Karelin and Kirilov from Xinjiang ("Sinkiang: Songaria-Kirghisici"), not seen by the present authors, has been named as Pyrethrum achilleifolium M. Bieberstein (Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 2: 327. 1808; Tanacetum achilleifolium (M. Bieberstein) Schultz Bipontinus, Tanaceteen, 47. 1844), a C Asian species recorded west of the W Altai. It would key out below as T. santolina, from which it differs by its phyllaries broader, pubescent only at their bases, and with broader membranous margins.

1 Ray florets absent: capitula disciform or discoid   (2)
+ Ray florets conspicuous: capitula radiate   (5)
2 (1) Florets orange-red; plants 7-25 cm tall.   10 T. tatsienense
+ Florets yellow; plants 30-150 cm tall   (3)
3 (2) Synflorescence with (5-)10-70(-100) capitula; stem leaves elliptic or elliptic-ovate, to 20 cm, ultimate segments ovate, obliquely triangular, or narrowly elliptic; capitula disciform.   1 T. vulgare
+ Synflorescence with 3-10(-12) capitula; stem leaves linear-oblong or oblong, 1-9 cm, ultimate segments linear or oblong; capitula discoid   (4)
4 (3) Leaves less than 3 cm, with inconspicuous or short petioles, ultimate segments oblong, apex obtuse.   18 T. artemisioides
+ Leaves more than 4 cm, with long petioles, ultimate segments linear, acute.   19 T. falconeri
5 (1) Ray florets yellow   (6)
+ Ray florets white, pink, red, orange-red, or purplish   (10)
6 (5) Capitula 1 per stem; indumentum with curved simple hairs only.   11 T. atkinsonii
+ Capitula 3-16 per stem; indumentum with a mixture of simple hairs and T-shaped hairs   (7)
7 (6) Basal leaves inconspicuously tripinnatisect, petiole to ca. 2.5 cm.   6 T. scopulorum
+ Basal leaves 2-pinnatisect, petiole 3-8 cm   (8)
8 (7) Capitula 3-7, densely corymbose or compound-corymbose; peduncle becoming thick at apex,. 5-1.5 cm.   3 T. crassipes
+ Capitula 5-16, laxly irregularly corymbose; peduncle 1-10 cm   (9)
9 (8) Leaves narrowly elliptic or narrowly linear-elliptic; involucre 7-17 mm in diam.   4 T. barclayanum
+ Leaves linear or broadly linear; involucre 4-7 mm in diam.   5 T. santolina
10 (5) Ray florets red, orange-red, or purplish   (11)
+ Ray florets white or pink   (13)
11 (10) Plants 25-50 cm tall; basal leaves 2.5-4 cm wide; outer phyllaries ca. 3.5 mm.   8 T. coccineum
+ Plants 7-35 cm tall; basal leaves 1-2 cm wide; outer phyllaries 5-6 mm   (12)
12 (11) Ray florets orange-red; corona ca. 0.1 mm, divided to base.   10 T. tatsienense
+ Ray florets red or purple-red; corona 0.3-0.5 mm, divided for half length.   16 T. richterioides
13 (10) Small subshrubs; ray florets pink.   9 T. petraeum
+ Perennial herbs; ray florets white (sometimes pink in T. kaschgarianum)   (14)
14 (13) Stems and leaves with T-shaped or forked hairs, sometimes mixed with simple hairs   (15)
+ Stems and leaves with simple hairs only, sometimes these glandular   (16)
15 (14) Basal leaves with petiole 6-9 cm, blade ca. 10 × 2.5 cm; stems and leaves green or gray-green; indumentum spreading, hairs a mixture of simple and T-shaped hairs; involucres campanulate.   2 T. tanacetoides
+ Basal leaves with petiole 10-20 cm, blade 1.5-4 × 1-2 cm; stems and leaves silvery gray; indumentum appressed, all hairs T-shaped or forked; involucres shallowly cup-shaped.   7 T. cinerariifolium
16 (14) Involucres straw-colored; scarious margins of phyllaries narrowly white; leaves petiolate (cultivated ornamentals)   (17)
+ Involucres not straw-colored; scarious margins of phyllaries dark brown or brown; stem leaves sessile or shortly petiolate   (18)
17 (17) Plants green or deep green; ray floret lamina 7-10 mm; achenes ca. 3 mm.  

T. partheniifolium (see comment above)

+ Plants yellow-green; ray floret lamina 3-6 mm; achenes ca. 1.2 mm.  

T. parthenium (see comment above)

18 (16) Leaf surfaces gray-white; receptacle pilose with easily shed hairs.   17 T. kaschgarianum
+ Leaf surfaces green; receptacle persistently pilose   (19)
19 (18) Capitula 2-7, very rarely solitary   (20)
+ Capitula solitary, very rarely 2 or 3   (21)
20 (19) Indumentum with a mixture of glandular and eglandular hairs; ultimate segments of leaves filiform.   14 T. abrotanoides
+ Indumentum with glandular hairs only; ultimate segments of leaves linear to obliquely triangular.   12 T. alatavicum
21 (19) Basal leaves 1-2 cm wide; achene corona 1-1.2 mm, divided to base.   15 T. pulchrum
+ Basal leaves 2-5 cm wide; achene corona 0.4-0.7 mm, divided for half length.   13 T. krylovianum

  • List of lower taxa


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