All Floras      Advanced Search
FOC Vol. 11 Page 51, 66, 67 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 11 | Rutaceae

3. Tetradium Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 1: 91. 1790.

四数花属 si shu hua shu

Authors: Prof. Dianxiang Zhang & Thomas G. Hartley

Boymia A. Jussieu; Megabotrya Hance ex Walpers; Philagonia Blume.

Shrubs or trees, evergreen or deciduous, dioecious or rarely polygamo-dioecious. Axillary buds exposed. Leaves opposite, odd- pinnate (occasional leaves even-pinnate); lateral leaflet blades often ± inequilateral, especially at base. Inflorescences terminal or terminal and axillary, thyrsiform. Sepals 4 or 5, basally connate. Petals 4 or 5, narrowly imbricate in bud. Stamens 4 or 5, distinct. Male flowers: stamens to 1.5 × as long as petals; disk conic to cylindric or occasionally barrel-shaped; gynoecium rudimentary, of 4 or 5 basally connate, divergent, and fingerlike carpels. Female flowers: stamens rudimentary, ligulate, much shorter than petals or sometimes lacking; disk pulvinate to barrel-shaped; gynoecium 4- or 5-carpelled; ovaries basally connate, otherwise contiguous, each with 1 or 2 ovules; style apical, of 4 or 5 ± contiguous stylar elements; stigma peltate. Fruit of 1-5 basally connate follicles with abortive carpels, if any, persistent; outer part of pericarp (exocarp and mesocarp) dry or ± fleshy; endocarp cartilaginous. Seeds remaining attached in dehisced fruit; seed coat (except in Tetradium daniellii and T. calcicola) with thick inner layer of dense black sclerenchyma and spongy outer layer bounded externally by a shiny black or reddish pellicle; endosperm copious; embryo straight; cotyledons broadly elliptic, ± flattened; hypocotyl superior.

Nine species: E, S, and SE Asia; seven species (one endemic) in China.

Euodia lyi H. Léveillé (Bull. Géogr. Bot. 24: 142. 1914) is a synonym of Miliusa sinensis Finett & Gagnepain in the Annonaceae (see Fl. China 7).

Euodia chaffanjonii H. Léveillé (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13: 265. 1914) is a synonym of Euscaphis japonica (Thunberg) Dippel in the Staphyleaceae (see p. 498).

Euodia was long confused with Tetradium and Melicope. Euodia comprises seven species native to NE Australia, New Guinea, and SW Pacific islands.

1 Plants flowering   (2)
+ Plants fruiting   (8)
2 (1) Flowers 4(or 5)-merous   (3)
+ Flowers (4 or)5-merous   (4)
3 (2) Leaflet blade secondary veins 13-22 on each side of midvein, margin crenulate or rarely entire; ovules 2 per carpel, subcollateral.   1 T. fraxinifolium
+ Leaflet blade secondary veins 11-14 on each side of midvein, margin entire; ovules 2 per carpel, collateral.   5 T. trichotomum
4 (2) Ovules 1 per carpel; leaflet blades abaxially finely papillate.   7 T. austrosinense
+ Ovules 2 per carpel; leaflet blades not abaxially papillate   (5)
5 (4) Ovules superposed   (6)
+ Ovules collateral or subcollateral   (7)
6 (5) Petals white or whitish, drying whitish or pale brown, outside glabrous; leaflet blade margins subentire to crenulate.   2 T. daniellii
+ Petals purple, drying dull purplish red, outside sparsely to ± densely appressed pubescent; leaflet blade margins entire.   3 T. calcicola
7 (5) Sepals ca. 0.5 mm; leaflet blades abaxially usually glaucous, reticulate veinlets dense and clearly defined.   4 T. glabrifolium
+ Sepals 0.5-1.2 mm; leaflet blades abaxially rarely slightly glaucous, reticulate veinlets ± loose and ± inconspicuous.   6 T. ruticarpum
8 (1) Fruit (including abortive carpels, if any) 4(or 5)-carpelled   (9)
+ Fruit (including abortive carpels, if any) (4 or)5-carpelled   (10)
9 (8) Seeds 2 per follicle, subtrigonous, attached in dehisced follicle to a fleshy funiculate aril.   1 T. fraxinifolium
+ Seeds 1 per follicle, paired with an abortive seed, subglobose to broadly ovoid, attached in dehisced follicle to an axile strip of pergamentaceous pericarp tissue.   5 T. trichotomum
10 (8) Fruit follicles 2-seeded   (11)
+ Fruit follicles 1-seeded   (12)
11 (10) Fruit follicles 5-11 mm, sparsely to densely spreading pubescent, apex beaked.   2 T. daniellii
+ Fruit follicles ca. 5 mm, sparsely to densely appressed pubescent laterally, otherwise glabrate, apex not beaked.   3 T. calcicola
12 (10) Seed not paired with an abortive seed; follicles ca. 3.5 mm.   7 T. austrosinense
+ Seed paired with an abortive seed; follicles 3.5-6 mm   (13)
13 (12) Fruit follicles trigonous, sparsely to densely appressed pubescent laterally, glabrous abaxially, endocarp sparsely to ± densely pubescent.   4 T. glabrifolium
+ Fruit follicles subglobose, glabrous or sometimes with sparse trichomes laterally and/or abaxially, endocarp glabrous.   6 T. ruticarpum

Lower Taxa


Related Objects  
  • Tetradium.pdf
  • PDF

    Flora of China @
    Browse by
    Advanced Search

    Flora of China Home




     |  eFlora Home |  People Search  |  Help  |  ActKey  |  Hu Cards  |  Glossary  |