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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 19 | Rubiaceae

91. Theligonum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 993. 1753.

假繁缕属 jia fan lü shu

Authors: Jiarui Chen & Michele Funston

Cynocrambe Gagnebin.

Herbs, annual or perennial, monoecious. Stems somewhat succulent. Raphides present. Leaves petiolate, somewhat succulent, lower ones opposite, upper ones apparently alternate due to anisophylly, entire; stipules interpetiolar, membranous, united at base to petioles. Flowers unisexual, rarely bisexual, axillary in upper nodes, small 1-3 flowered cymes, bracts reduced. Staminate flowers sessile; calyx limb reduced; perianth (equivalent to corolla) deeply lobed, lobes 2-5, valvate, spreading or reflexed at anthesis, 3-5 parallel nerves; stamens (2-)6-30, sometimes united basally in groups, anthers linear, dorsifixed at anthesis, free slender filaments, pistillode reduced. Pistillate flowers subsessile; calyx limb reduced; perianth (equivalent to corolla) tubular, oblique, upper part an elongate constricted mouth, 2-4 denticulate-lobed; staminodes reduced; ovary 1-celled; style simple, exserted; ovule solitary, basal. Fruit a nutlike drupe, compressed; seed U-shaped; endosperm fleshy.

Four species: E Asia, Atlantic Ocean islands, Mediterranean region; three species (two endemic) in China.

Traditionally, Theligonaceae have been treated as a monogeneric family of controversial relationship: Rubiales (Cronquist), Myrtales (Engler), Caryophyllales (Dalla Torre & Harms). However, recent reliable molecular data place it within a highly derived group of Rubiaceae (along with Galium, Hedyotis, and Rubia; Pl. Syst. Evol. 225: 43-75. 2000).

1 Stamens 5-7; stem often ca. 10 cm.   1 T. formosanum
+ Stamens ca. 20; stem 15-50 cm   (2)
2 (1) Annual herbs; leaf blades 2-5 × 1.5-3 cm; stamens more than 20.   3 T. macranthum
+ Perennial herbs; leaf blades 0.7-3 × 0.7-1.5 cm; stamens 20-25 or 16-20.   2 T. japonicum

Lower Taxa


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