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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 22 | Poaceae

213. Themeda Forsskål, Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 178. 1775.

菅属 jian shu

Authors: Shou-liang Chen & Sylvia M. Phillips

Anthistiria Linnaeus f.

Perennial or annual, often coarse. Culms tufted. Leaf sheaths keeled; leaf blades linear; ligule short, membranous or papery. Inflorescence a leafy compound panicle composed of short racemes; each raceme on a short peduncle subtended by a sheathing spatheole, loosely arranged or gathered into fan-shaped spathate fascicles. Raceme comprising 2 pairs of large sessile homogamous spikelets at base forming an involucre, with 1–2(–5) fertile pairs above and a terminal triad, these usually deciduous, rarely raceme shed as a whole; internodes and pedicels linear. Sessile spikelet subterete or dorsally compressed; callus mostly acute to pungent, sometimes obtuse, bearded; lower glume usually leathery, margins rounded, incurving, keeled only near apex, obtuse; upper glume awnless; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma stipitiform, entire, passing into a geniculate awn with pubescent column, occasionally awnless. Pedicelled spikelet mostly larger than sessile, narrowly lanceolate, resembling homogamous; callus slender, pedicel-like; true pedicel reduced. x = 10.

Twenty-seven species:tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World, mainly in Asia; 13 species (four endemic) in China.

The number of spikelets in a raceme refers to the total of homogamous, sessile, and pedicelled spikelets. Hence racemes with seven spikelets (division 1a of the key) have only one fertile sessile spikelet and one awn. Racemes with more than one awn have more than seven spikelets.

Most species of this genus are used for forage when young.

1 Raceme with 7 spikelets; homogamous spikelets all at same level; racemes congested in dense fascicles   (2)
+ Raceme with (7 or)9–17 spikelets; homogamous spikelets at slightly different levels; racemes loosely arranged   (5)
2 (1) Homogamous spikelets 7–14 mm.   1 T. triandra
+ Homogamous spikelets 4–6 mm   (3)
3 (2) Involucral spikelets densely hairy with soft hairs; awn poorly developed, ca. 4 mm.   2 T. minor
+ Involucral spikelets conspicuously setose with a few long bristles from large tubercles; awn well developed, 3–4.5 cm   (4)
4 (3) Fascicles of racemes from upper leaf axils; sessile spikelet pubescent toward apex.   3 T. quadrivalvis
+ Fascicles of racemes from all leaf axils; sessile spikelet pubescent throughout.   4 T. helferi
5 (1) Homogamous spikelets pubescent, thinly hispid or glabrous   (6)
+ Homogamous spikelets setose with tubercle-based bristles   (9)
6 (5) Culms slender, 20–60 cm; racemes few.   5 T. hookeri
+ Culms robust, 1–3.5 m; racemes numerous   (7)
7 (6) Sessile spikelet awnless or with awn less than 1 cm.   7 T. villosa
+ Sessile spikelet with 2–8 cm awn   (8)
8 (7) Culms and leaves hirsute.   8 T. trichiata
+ Culms and leaves glabrous.   9 T. caudata
9 (5) Sessile spikelet awnless or with awn less than 1 cm   (10)
+ Sessile spikelet awned   (11)
10 (9) Homogamous spikelets 0.5–0.8 cm; culms slender.   6 T. anathera
+ Homogamous spikelets 1–4 cm; culms robust.   10 T. intermedia
11 (9) Raceme with 13–17 spikelets; homogamous spikelets 2.5–4 cm.   11 T. unica
+ Raceme with 7–9 spikelets; homogamous spikelets 1–1.5 cm   (12)
12 (11) Glumes of homogamous and pedicelled spikelets with golden hairs; lower glume of sessile spikelet convex.   12 T. arundinacea
+ Glumes of homogamous and pedicelled spikelets with long soft white hairs; lower glume of sessile spikelet with shallow median groove.   13 T. yunnanensis

  • List of lower taxa


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