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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 12 | Rhamnaceae

3. Ziziphus Miller, Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4. 1754.

枣属 zao shu

Shrubs or small to medium-sized trees, erect or straggling, often climbing, evergreen or deciduous, often spinose. Leaves alternate, petiolate, distinctly triplinerved or rarely pinnately veined; stipules usually transformed into 1 or 2, erect or ± recurved spines. Flowers yellow-green, small, bisexual, in axillary corymblike cymes, or axillary or terminal thyrses. Calyx tube shallow, patelliform to hemispherical. Sepals ovate-triangular or triangular, adaxially ± distinctly keeled. Petals clawed, obovate or spatulate, rarely absent. Disk shallow, fleshy, 5-10-lobed. Ovary superior, globose, 2- or 3(or 4)-loculed; style ± deeply branched, 2(-4)-fid. Fruit a single-stoned, (1 or)2- or 3-loculed, globose or oblong drupe, base with persistent calyx tube, apex mucronulate; mesocarp fleshy or soft corky; endocarp cartilaginous or woody, locules 1-seeded. Seeds without endosperm or rarely with endosperm; cotyledon thickening.

About 100 species: mainly in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia and the Americas, a few species in Africa and temperate regions; 12 species (six endemic) in China.

1 Cymose racemes or terminal cymose panicles formed by cymes; drupe hairy, endocarp thin, early broken   (2)
+ Axillary cymes; drupe glabrous, endocarp thick, stiffly cartilaginous, difficult to break   (4)
2 (1) Shrubs or small trees; leaf blade broadly ovate or broadly elliptic, broad at middle, adaxially densely ferruginous or yellow-brown tomentose.   12 Z. rugosa
+ Scandent shrubs; leaf blade ovate-elliptic or ovate-oblong, broad at lower part, adaxially veins pubescent or glabrous   (3)
3 (2) Leaves adaxially on veins densely ferruginous hairy or sparsely pubescent; flowers without petals; drupe subglobose, not more than 1.5 cm, densely pubescent at first, ± glabrescent.   10 Z. fungii
+ Leaves adaxially only clustered hairy in vein axils; flowers with petals; drupe compressed-elliptic, ca. 2 cm, densely orange pilose.   11 Z. attopensis
4 (1) Peduncles conspicuous, 2-16 mm   (5)
+ Peduncles very short, not longer than 2 mm, or flowers and fruit subsessile   (6)
5 (4) Scandent or erect shrubs, with hooked-recurved spines or one erect spine and another recurved; leaf blade 3-5 × 2-4 cm; peduncles 2-5 mm; drupe 4-5 mm in diam., fruiting pedicels 2-3 mm.   8 Z. laui
+ Spinescent trees; leaf blade 5-14 × 3-6 cm; drupe ca. 10 mm in diam., fruiting pedicels 4-11 mm.   9 Z. incurva
6 (4) Leaves adaxially hairy at least on veins; branches with short spines less than 6 mm; drupe not more than 1.2 cm   (7)
+ Leaves adaxially glabrous or subglabrous, or only at base of vein axils hairy, with 2 spines, long spine often more than 1 cm, rarely to 3 cm; drupe 1.2-3 cm in diam. (excluding Z. jujuba var. spinosa and Z. jujuba f. tortuosa)   (9)
7 (6) Branchlets, petioles, pedicels, and calyx sparsely pubescent or rarely glabrous; leaves adaxially sparsely pubescent on veins; flowers solitary or 2-4 in axillary cymes.   5 Z. pubinervis
+ Branchlets, petioles, pedicels, and calyx densely pubescent; flowers numerous in dichotomous cymes   (8)
8 (7) Scandent or erect shrubs; leaf blade ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate, broadest at lower part, apex acute or acuminate, adaxially ferruginous; drupe 5-6 mm in diam.   6 Z. oenopolia
+ Trees or shrubs; leaf blade oblong or elliptic, rarely suborbicular, broadest at middle, apex rounded, rarely acute, adaxially densely yellow or gray-white tomentose; drupe ca. 10 mm in diam.   7 Z. mauritiana
9 (6) Annual branches usually 2-7-fascicled on oblong reduced branches; pedicels and calyx glabrous; drupe oblong or narrowly ovoid, mesocarp thick, fleshy.   1 Z. jujuba
+ Plant without reduced branches; pedicels and calyx hairy; drupe globose or obovoid-globose, mesocarp thin, not fleshy   (10)
10 (9) Leaves solitary or 2 or 3 in fascicles, leaf blade 2-4 × 1.5-3 cm, apex obtuse or rounded; drupe 1.2-1.5 cm in diam.   2 Z. xiangchengensis
+ Leaves solitary, leaf blade 5-12.5 × 3-5.5 cm, apex acuminate to obtuse; drupe ca. 1.8 cm in diam   (11)
11 (10) Young branches glabrous; leaf blade ovate-lanceolate, apex acuminate; drupe endocarp thicker than mesocarp, basal margin thickening.   3 Z. mairei
+ Young branches and annual branches tomentose; leaf blade elliptic or ovate-elliptic, apex obtuse or subrounded; drupe mesocarp thicker than endocarp, basal margin not thickening.   4 Z. montana

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