29. Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zuccarini, Fl. Jap. 2: 28. 1842.
红松 hong song
Apinus koraiensis (Siebold & Zuccarini) Moldenke; Pinus mandschurica Ruprecht; P. prokoraiensis Y. T. Zhao & al.; Strobus koraiensis (Siebold & Zuccarini) Moldenke.
Trees to 50 m tall; trunk to 1 m d.b.h.; bark gray-brown or gray, fissured longitudinally into irregularly oblong plates, inner bark red-brown; branchlets densely red-brown, occasionally yellow pubescent; winter buds reddish brown, oblong-ovoid, slightly resinous. Needles 5 per bundle, dark green, straight, almost triangular in cross section, 6-12 cm, stomatal lines 6-8 along each abaxial surface, blue-gray, vascular bundle 1, resin canals 3, median, base with sheath shed, margin serrulate. Seed cones solitary or several clustered near apex of 1st-year branchlets, erect, pedunculate (peduncle 1-1.5 cm), conical-ovoid or ovoid-oblong, 9-14 × 6-8 cm, indehiscent or slightly dehiscent at maturity, with seeds exposed but not shed. Seed scales reflexed at apex. Seeds triangular-obovoid, 1.2-1.6 cm, wingless.
Mountains; 200-1800 m. Heilongjiang, Jilin [Japan, Korea, E Russia]
The timber is used for construction, bridge building, vehicles, furniture, and wood pulp. The seeds are edible, medicinal, and used as a source of soap and lubricating oil. Turpentine is obtained from the timber and roots, and the bark yields tannin.