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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 4 | Pinaceae | Tsuga

4. Tsuga chinensis (Franchet) E. Pritzel, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29: 217. 1900.

铁杉 tie shan

Trees to 50 m tall; trunk to 1.6 m d.b.h.; bark dark gray, longitudinally fissured, flaking; crown pyramidal; branchlets brown-yellow or grayish yellow initially, turning grayish yellow, gray, or brownish gray in 2nd or 3rd year, slender, pubescent; winter bud scales appressed or keeled at base of branchlets. Leaves pectinately arranged, linear, 1.2-2.7 cm × 2-3 mm, abaxial stomatal bands grayish green, margin entire, apex obtuse, entire or emarginate. Seed cones light green, maturing pale gray-yellow or pale brown, ovoid-globose to cylindric or obovoid-oblong, 1.5-4 × 1.2-2.5 cm. Seed scales at middle of cones densely arranged, square-orbicular, pentagonal-ovate, or compressed orbicular, 0.9-1.2 × 0.8-1.1 cm, apex rounded or nearly truncate. Bracts cuneate-obovate or obtriangular, apex erose. Seeds 7-9 mm including obliquely ovate wing. Pollination Apr, seed maturity Oct.

* Mountains, mixed forests, valleys, river basins; 1000-3500 m. Anhui, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, N Guizhou, W Henan, W Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang

The timber is used for construction, aircraft, furniture, and in mines. The bark is used for producing tannin, the trunk for resin, and the roots, trunk, and branches for aromatic oils.

1 Branchlets gray or yellow-gray, ca. 1 mm in diam.; seed cones ovoid, 1.5-2.5 × 1.2-1.6 cm.   (2)
+ Branchlets brownish yellow or brown, 1.5-2 mm in diam.; seed cones ovoid-globose, narrowly ovoid, ovoid-cylindric, or shortly cylindric, 2-4 × 1.5-3 cm.   (3)
2 (1) Seed scales pentagonal-ovate, subsquare, or suborbicular   4a var. chinensis
+ Seed scales compressed orbicular or nearly semiorbicular   4b var. formosana
3 (1) Seed cones ovoid-globose, 2-2.5 × 1.8-2 cm; seed scales almost square, exposed part smooth, shining   4c var. patens
+ Seed cones narrowly ovoid, ovoid-cylindric, or shortly cylindric, (2-)2.5-4 × 1.5-3 cm; seed scales narrowly ovate, oblong, or square-orbicular, exposed part striate and glabrous, or pubescent.   (4)
4 (3) Seed cones slender, narrowly ovoid or ovoid-cylindric; seed scales narrowly ovate or oblong, exposed part striate, glabrous, margin thickened   4d var. forrestii
+ Seed cones stout, shortly cylindric; seed scales square-orbicular, exposed part pubescent, margin not thickened   4e var. robusta

Lower Taxa


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