1. Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 37: 330. 1906.
台湾杉 tai wan shan
Taiwania cryptomerioides var. flousiana (Gaussen) Silba; T. flousiana Gaussen; T. yunnanensis Koidzumi.
Trees to 75 m tall; trunk to 3.5 m d.b.h.; bark brownish gray, cracking into long, irregular flakes; crown conical or broadly rounded. Leaves of old branchlets 1.5-8(-9) mm × 0.8-2.5 mm, stomata in 8-13 rows on adaxial, long side and in 6-9 rows on 2 abaxial flanks. Leaves of young trees and new branchlets borne at 40-70° to axis, bluish green, 1-2.5 cm × 1.2-2 mm, stomata in 3-6 rows on each surface. Pollen cones in clusters of 2-7; microsporophylls 10-36, each with 2 or 3 pollen sacs. Seed cones shortly cylindric to ellipsoid or narrowly so, 1-2.2 cm × 6-11 mm; cone scales 15-39, median scales broadly obdeltoid, 6-7 × 7-8 mm, claw ca. 2/5 × total length of scale. Seeds oblong-ovate, narrowly elliptic, or narrowly elliptic-obovate, 4-7 × 2.5-4.5 mm (including wings 1-1.5 mm wide projecting 1-1.5 mm beyond apex of seed). Pollination Apr-May, seed maturity Oct-Nov. 2n = 22*, 33.
Coniferous, broad-leaved, or mixed evergreen valley forests on acid, red, or brown soils in warm or warm temperate regions with high summer and autumn rainfall but drier winters, usually scattered and associated with Chamaecyparis formosensis, C. obtusa var. formosana, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Pinus wallichiana, or Tsuga dumosa, but sometimes forming pure stands; 500-2800 m. SE Guizhou (Leigong Shan), SW Hubei (Lichuan Xian, Maoba), SE Sichuan (Youyang Xian), Taiwan (Zhongyang Shan), SE Xizang (Zayü Xian), W Yunnan [N Myanmar]
A rare species in China, decreasing as a result of cutting for timber. It may attain an age of over 2000 years and, within its native range, can be used for afforestation. The wood is easily worked, and is used in building, making furniture and coffins ("Chinese coffin tree"), bridge and boat construction, and paper manufacture.
This taxon was lectotypified (Ohashi, H. & K. Ohashi. 2008. J. Jap. Bot. 83: 177-184) after publication of the family treatment for the Flora of China.