22. Piper longum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 29. 1753.
荜拔 bi ba
Chavica roxburghii Miquel.
Climbers to several m long, dioecious; many parts very finely powdery pubescent when young. Stems often flexuous. Petiole 0-9 cm, leaves toward base of stem long petiolate, those at apex of stem sometimes nearly sessile and clasping, very finely powdery pubescent; prophyll ca. 1/3 as long as petiole; leaf blades toward base of stem ovate to ± reniform, those at apex of stem ovate to ovate-oblong, 6-12 × 3-12 cm, papery, densely glandular, base cordate, basal lobes rounded and equal, slightly incurved, leaf blades toward apex of stem sometimes with basal lobes overlapping, slightly unequal, apex acute to acuminate; veins 7, apical pair partly closely parallel to midvein, reaching leaf apex, others basal; reticulate veins lax. Spikes leaf-opposed, recurved. Male spikes 4-5 cm × ca. 3 mm; peduncle 2-3 cm; bracts suborbicular, sometimes slightly cuneate, ca. 1.5 mm wide, peltate, glabrous, stalk short. Stamens 2; filaments very short; anthers ellipsoid. Female spikes (1-) 1.5-2.5 cm × 2.5-4 mm, 2-3 cm in fruit; peduncle and rachis as in male spikes; bracts 0.9-1 mm in diam. Ovary ovoid, partly connate to rachis; stigmas 3, ovoid, apex acute. Drupe globose, ca. 2 mm in diam., apex umbonate, partly connate to rachis. Fl. Jul-Oct.
Forests; circa 600 m. SE to SW Yunnan; cultivated in Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan [India, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Vietnam]