3. Juglans mandshurica Maximowicz, Bull. Cl. Phys.-Math. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, sér. 2. 15: 127. 1856.
胡桃楸 hu tao qiu
Juglans cathayensis Dode; J. cathayensis var. formosana (Hayata) A. M. Lu & R. H. Chang; J. collapsa Dode; J. draconis Dode; J. formosana Hayata; J. stenocarpa Maximowicz.
Trees or sometimes shrubs, to 25 m tall. Leaves 40-90 cm; petiole 5-23 cm; petiole and rachis sparsely to moderately glandular pubescent, occasionally densely so; leaflets (7 or)9-19, lateral ones sessile, blade elliptic to long elliptic or ovate-elliptic to long elliptic-lanceolate, 6-17 × 2-7.5 cm, abaxially tomentose or occasionally slightly pubescent, generally without glandular hairs, slightly to densely eglandular and glandular pubescent along midvein, base oblique, subcordate, margin serrate, rarely serrulate, apex acuminate; terminal petiolule 1-5 cm. Male spike 9-40 cm. Stamens 12-40. Fruiting spike with 5-10(-13) nuts. Nuts globose, ovoid, or ellipsoid, 3-7.5 × 3-5 cm; husk densely glandular pubescent, indehiscent; shell thick, rough, with 6-8 prominent ridges and deep pits and depressions. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Aug-Oct. 2n = 32
Mixed forests on mountain slopes or in valleys; 500-2800 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [N Korea].
Juglans mandshurica has often been characterized as a species with abaxially glabrescent leaflets, fruiting spike with 4 or 5 nuts, and a distribution N and NE of the Huang He valley. Juglans cathayensis was thought to differ in its tomentose leaflets, fruiting spike with 6-10 nuts, and a distribution S of the Huang He.