3. Dicranostigma leptopodum (Maximowicz) Fedde, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36(Beibl. 82): 45. 1905.
秃疮花 tu chuang hua
Glaucium leptopodum Maximowicz, Mélanges Biol. Bull. Phys.-Math. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 9: 714. 1876; Chelidonium franchetianum Prain; C. leptopodum (Maximowicz) Prain; Dicranostigma franchetianum (Prain) Fedde.
Herbs, biennial to short-lived perennial, 25-80(-100) cm tall, throughout yellow lactiferous, shortly pubescent, rarely glabrous. Taproot terete. Stems many, green, glaucous, apex with many equal branches. Basal leaves in a rosette; petiole strip-form, 2-5 cm, sparsely shortly white pubescent, several striate; blade pale green abaxially, green adaxially, narrowly oblanceolate, 10-15 × 2-4 cm, sparsely shortly white pubescent, pinnatipartite; lobes 4-6 pairs, pinnatipartite or pinnatilobate again; lobules apically acuminate, apical lobules 3-lobed. Cauline leaves few at stem apices, sessile, 1-7 cm, pinnatipartite, pinnatilobate, or bipinnatipartite; lobes sparsely serrate, apex deltoid-acuminate. Flowers in cymes of 2-5, sometimes solitary. Pedicel 2-2.5 cm, glabrous, bracteate. Flower buds broadly ovoid, ca. 1 cm. Sepals ovate, 0.6-1 cm, apically acuminate to shortly horned, spur end obviously ampliate spatulate, glabrous or shortly pubescent. Petals slightly overlapping, yellow, obovate to orbicular, 10-20 × 10-13 mm, undulate. Stamens many; filaments 3-4 mm; anthers yellow, oblong, 1.5-2 mm. Ovary green, narrowly terete, ca. 6 mm, densely verrucose-pubescent; styles erect, short; stigmas 2-divided. Capsule green, linear, 4-7.5 cm × ca. 2 mm, glabrous, 2-valvate from apex almost to base. Seeds rufous, ovoid, ca. 0.5 mm, tessellate. Fl. Mar-Jul, fr. Jun-Sep. 2n = 12*.
● Grassy slopes and roadsides, field ridges, corners of walls, housetops, rocky embankments; 400-2900(-3700) m. S to SE Gansu, SW Hebei, NW Henan, E Qinghai, Shaanxi (N Qin Ling), S Shanxi, NW and W Sichuan, N Xizang, NW Yunnan.
One of us (Grey-Wilson) notes that typical Dicranostigma leptopodum is a rather small plant (25-50 cm tall) with petals rarely more than 14 mm. The status of D. franchetianum is unclear and requires further investigation; plants are generally more robust than D. leptopodum (to 1 m) and bear larger flowers, with petals 15-20 mm. However, the two taxa appear to be linked by intermediates. In cultivation, D. franchetianum behaves as an annual.
The status of Dicranostigma henanense S. Y. Wang & L. H. Wu (Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 17: 43. 1997, "henanensis"), described from Henan, is uncertain and requires further investigation. It will probably prove to be a form of the very variable D. leptopodum.