4. Prunus domestica Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 475. 1753.
欧洲李 ou zhou li
Prunus communis Hudson; P. domestica var. damascena Linnaeus; P. domestica subsp. oeconomica (Borkhausen) C. K. Schneider; P. sativa Rouy & Camus subsp. domestica (Linnaeus) Rouy & E. G. Camus.
Trees 6–15 m tall. Branches reddish brown, unarmed or with a few spines, glabrous; branchlets pale red to grayish green, sparsely pubescent. Winter buds reddish brown, usually glabrous. Stipules linear, margin glandular, apex acuminate. Petiole 1–2 cm, densely pubescent; leaf blade dark green, elliptic to obovate, 4–10 × 2.5–5 cm, abaxially pubescent, adaxially glabrous or sparsely pubescent on veins, base cuneate to occasionally broadly cuneate and with a pair of nectaries, margin remote crenate, apex acute to obtuse; secondary veins 5–7 on either side of midvein. Flowers solitary or to 3 in a fascicle, on apex of short branchlets, 1–1.5 cm in diam. Pedicel 1–1.2 cm, glabrous or pubescent. Hypanthium outside pubescent. Sepals ovate, outside pubescent, margin entire, apex acute. Petals white or occasionally greenish, obovate, base cuneate, apex rounded to obtuse. Drupe red, purple, green, or yellow, usually globose to oblong, rarely subglobose, 1–2.5 cm in diam., often glaucous; endocarp broadly ellipsoid, pitted. Fl. Mar, fr. Sep.
Widely cultivated in China [native to SW Asia and Europe].
This species has a long history of cultivation, with many horticultural varieties. It is grown for its fruit, which are eaten fresh or made into juice or preserves.