1. Connarus paniculatus Roxburgh, Fl. Ind., ed. 1832. 3: 139. 1832.
牛栓藤 niu shuan teng
Connarus hainanensis Merrill; C. tonkinensis Lecomte.
Lianas or scandent shrubs. Branchlets ferrugineous tomentose when young, glabrous when mature. Leaves odd-pinnate, rarely 1-foliolate; petiole, rachis, and petiolules glabrous; leaflets often 2-or 3-paired; leaflet blade oblong, oblong-elliptic, or lanceolate, 6–20 × 3–7.5 cm, leathery, glabrous on both surfaces, lateral veins 5–9-paired, spreading to ascending, slightly curved and anastomosing near margin, base subcuneate or subrounded, margin entire, apex acute, rarely emarginate. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, paniculate, 10–40 cm; rachis and pedicels shortly ferrugineous tomentose, later glabrescent; bracts scaly. Sepals 5, lanceolate to ovate, ca. 3 mm, sparsely and shortly ferrugineous tomentose abaxially, apex acuminate. Petals 5, milky yellow, oblong, 5–7 mm, shortly ferrugineous tomentose abaxially, pilose adaxially, apex obtuse. Stamens ca. 10, all fertile. Carpel 1, nearly as long as long stamens, densely pubescent. Follicle long ellipsoid, slightly inflated, 3–3.5 × 1.5–2 cm, base gradually narrowed into a short, slender stipe, apex shortly beaked and slightly oblique; pericarp bright red, woody, glabrous abaxially, slightly pubescent adaxially, longitudinally striate. Seed black-purple, glossy, oblong, 1–1.7 × 0.5–1.1 cm, base covered by 2-lobed aril.
Sparse or dense forests. Hainan [Cambodia, India, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam].