1. Tropaeolum majus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 345. 1753.
旱金莲 han jin lian
Herbs, annual, trailing, glabrous or nearly so. Leaf blade orbicular to somewhat reniform, 3-10 cm in diam., peltate and with 9 main nerves radiating from petiole, margin variously angled or sinuate but otherwise entire, abaxial surface usually papillose. Flowers axillary, solitary, yellow, orange, purple, maroon, creamy white, or varicolored, 2.5-6 cm in diam. Pedicel 6-13 cm. Torus cup-shaped. Sepals 5, oblong-lanceolate, 1.5-2 × 0.5-0.7 cm; spur 2.5-3.5 cm, straight or curved. Petals 5, apex mostly rounded but sometimes shortly pointed or even toothed; apical 2 petals 2.5-5 × 1-1.8 cm, margin often entire; basal 3 petals with margin deeply fringed on claw. Stamens 8, distinct, unequal. Ovary 3-loculed; style 1; stigma linear, 3-lobed. Fruit oblate, separating into 3 1-seeded mericarps at maturity. Fl. Jun-Oct, fr. Jul-Oct. 2n = 28.
Cultivated as a potted plant in most of China, escaped and apparently naturalized in Sichuan, Xizang (Nyingchi), Yunnan [native to South America (Brazil and Peru)].