1. Brucea javanica (Linnaeus) Merrill, J. Arnold Arbor. 9: 3. 1928.
鸦胆子 ya dan zi
Rhus javanica Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 265. 1753; Brucea sumatrana Roxburgh; Gonus amarissimus Loureiro.
Shrubs or small trees. Young branches, petioles, and inflorescences yellow tomentose. Leaves 20-40 cm; leaflets 3-15; petiolule 4-8 mm; blades ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 5-10(-13) × 2.5-5(-6.5) cm, base broadly cuneate or nearly rounded, usually somewhat oblique, margin serrate, apex acuminate, both surfaces villous, especially along veins and abaxially. Panicles 15-25(-40) cm in males, ca. half as long in females. Flowers small, dark purple, 1.5-2 mm in diam. Male flowers: pedicel slender, ca. 3 mm; sepals densely puberulent, 0.5-1 × 0.3-0.5 mm; petals sparsely puberulent or nearly glabrous, 1-2 × 0.5-1 mm; filaments subulate, ca. 0.6 mm; anthers ca. 0.4 mm. Female flowers: pedicel ca. 2.5 mm; sepals and petals same as in males; stamens rudimentary. Druparia 1-4, free, oblong-ovoid, 6-8 × 4-6 mm, gray-black when ripe; exocarp reticulately wrinkled when dry; endocarp hard bony. Seeds yellow-white, ovoid, thinly membranous, with copious oil, terribly bitter. Fl. Jun-Jul, fr. Aug-Oct.
Open shrubby forests in foothills; below 100-1000 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka; Australia].