3. Antidesma bunius (Linnaeus) Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 1: 826. 1824.
五月茶 wu yue cha
Trees, rarely shrubs, up to 30 m tall; young twigs glabrous to very shortly pubescent. Stipules linear, 4-6 × 1.5-2 mm, caducous; petiole 3-10(-17) mm, glabrous to pubescent; leaf blade oblong, elliptic, or obovate, (5-)10-23(-32) × (2-)3-10 cm, leathery or thickly papery, glabrous except sometimes midvein pilose, or abaxially reddish pubescent, shiny, usually drying dark green (sometimes grayish or reddish) adaxially, slightly lighter abaxially, base acute to rounded, apex acute to rounded, sometimes slightly emarginate or acuminate, usually mucronate; domatia absent; midvein flat to impressed adaxially, lateral veins (5-)7-11 pairs, tertiary veins reticulate. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, axes glabrous to pubescent, robust, males 6-17(-25) cm, 3-8(-14)-branched, females and fruiting (4-)10-18 cm, unbranched or more rarely up to 4-branched. Male flowers sessile; calyx 1-1.5 mm, cup-shaped, 3- or 4(or 5)-lobed, divided for 1/4-1/3, glabrous to pubescent outside, reddish long pubescent at base inside, margin fimbriate, apex of lobes obtuse to rounded; disk annular, consisting of free lobes or enclosing stamens and pistillode, glabrous; stamens 3 or 4(or 5), 2-3 mm; rudimentary ovary clavate to cylindric. Female flowers: pedicels 0.5-1(-2) mm, 2-4(-9) mm in fruit; calyx 3-lobed, otherwise as in male; disk glabrous; ovary glabrous or pilose; stigmas 3 or 4(-6). Drupes ellipsoid, laterally compressed, 5-11(-?18) × 4-7 mm, glabrous or pilose, red to black when ripe; style (sub)terminal. Fl. Mar-May, fr. Jun-Nov. x = 13.
Forests; 200-1800 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Xizang [India (including Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; NE Australia (including Christmas Island), Pacific islands (Hawaii, Tahiti)].
Antidesma bunius var. bunius is widely cultivated as a fruit tree, especially in Java and the Philippines. The fruits are used in syrups, jams, and jellies; made into wine, liqueur, or brandy; and used in sauces eaten with fish. The leaves are eaten as a vegetable, and the leaves and roots are used as medicine for traumatic injury.
The species is absent in Peninsular Malaysia and nearly absent from Borneo.