75. Euphorbia sieboldiana C. Morren & Decaisne, Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Bruxelles. 3: 174. 1836.
钩腺大戟 gou xian da ji
Euphorbia bodinieri H. Léveillé; E. erythraea Hemsley; E. esquirolii H. Léveillé & Vaniot; E. glaucopoda Diels; E. henryi Hemsley; E. hippocrepica Hemsley; E. kangdingensis W. T. Wang; E. kangdingensis var. puberula W. T. Wang; E. luticola Handel-Mazzetti; E. savaryi Kiss; E. szechuanica Pax & K. Hoffmann.
Herbs, (22-)40-70 cm tall. Rootstock extensively rhizomatous, 10-20 cm, rhizomes 4-15 mm thick, segmented/moniliform. Stems single or clustered, (2-)4-7 mm thick, often with branchlets from upper nodes, smooth and glabrous. Leaves alternate, progressively larger toward apex; stipules absent; basal scale-leaves soon lost; petiole absent or nearly so; leaf blade elliptic, obovate-lanceolate, or oblong-elliptic, very variable, 2-5(-10) × 0.5-1.5(-3) cm, glabrous, base attenuate or cuneate, (crenulate or) entire, apex obtuse, acute, or acuminate; lateral veins pinnate. Inflorescence a terminal pseudumbel; primary involucral leaves 3-5(or 6), elliptic or ovate-elliptic, 1.5-2.5(-4.2) cm × 0.4-0.8(-2.8) mm, base subtruncate, apex obtuse, primary rays 3-5(or 6), 2-4(-7) cm; cymes mostly dichasial, sometimes becoming monochasial; cyathophylls 2, very variable, reniform-rounded, ovate-triangular, or rounded, 0.8-1.4(-1.8) × 0.8-1.6(-3.2) cm, base very broadly cuneate, shallowly cordate, or subrounded, apex rounded. Cyathium shortly stalked; involucre cuplike, 3-4 × 3-5 mm, lobes triangular or ovate-triangular, shortly pilose inside; glands 4, mainly yellow-brown, sometimes pale yellow or yellow-green, crescent-shaped, tips extended into 2 slender horns, horns obtuse to needlelike, very variable. Male flowers many, exserted from involucre. Female flower: ovary exserted from cup, smooth, glabrous; styles connate for less than 1/4 length, persistent but easily lost; style arms 2-lobed. Capsule 3-lobed, (3-)3.5-4 × 4-5 mm, smooth, glabrous. Seeds subterete-globose, ca. 2.5 × 1.5 mm, gray-brown, smooth; caruncle present, small, sessile. Fl. and fr. Apr-Sep.
Fields, scrub, forest margins, sparse forests, grasslands. Throughout China except Fujian, Hainan, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang [Japan, Korea, Russia (Far East)].
Euphorbia sieboldiana varies very much, especially in the 2 gland horns, which are either obtuse or acute. However, plants have in common the large rhizome, involucral leaves, and capsule, as well as the seeds.
The rhizome is used medicinally.