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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 11 | Aquifoliaceae | Ilex

38. Ilex triflora Blume, Bijdr. 1150. 1826.

三花冬青 san hua dong qing

Shrubs or trees, evergreen, 2-10 m tall. Branchlets zigzag, subquadrangular, ridged, rarely subterete, densely pubescent; leaf scars subcircular, slightly raised; lenticels absent; terminal buds poorly or not developed. Petiole 3-5 mm, densely pubescent, narrowly winged by decurrent leaf base; leaf blade brown or olivaceous when dry, elliptic, oblong, ovate-elliptic, obovate, or oblong-elliptic, 2.5-10 × 1.5-4 cm, subleathery, abaxially sparsely puberulent, punctate, adaxially puberulent or glabrescent, midvein impressed adaxially, densely pubescent on both surfaces, lateral veins 7-10 pairs, slightly distinct or indistinct on both surfaces, reticulate veins obscure, base rounded or obtuse, margin ± undulate, serrate, apex acute to acuminate, acumen 3-4 mm, or apex rounded. Inflorescences: cymes, fasciculate, axillary on current, second, or third year’s branchlets, pubescent; flowers white, 4-merous. Male inflorescences: cymes of order 1 or 2, 1-3-flowered; peduncles ca. 2 mm; pedicels 2-3 mm; bracteoles 2, basal; calyx patelliform, ca. 3 mm in diam., puberulent, deeply 4-lobed, lobes suborbicular, ciliate; corolla ca. 5 mm in diam., petals broadly ovate, basally slightly connate; stamens shorter than petals, anthers yellow, ellipsoidal; rudimentary ovary pyramidal, rostellate, apex cleft. Female inflorescences: 1-flowered cymes; peduncles nearly absent; pedicels 4-14(-18) mm, robust, puberulent; bracteoles 2, median or submedian, ovate; calyx as in male flowers; petals broadly ovate or suborbicular, basally slightly connate; staminodes ca. 1/2 as long as petals, sterile anthers cordate-sagittate; ovary ovoid, ca. 1.5 mm in diam., stigma thickly discoid, shallowly 4-lobed. Fruit black, globose, 4-7 mm in diam.; fruiting pedicel 4-18 mm, puberulent or glabrescent; persistent calyx explanate, ca. 4 mm in diam., sparsely ciliate; persistent stigma thickly discoid; pyrenes 4, ovoid-ellipsoidal, ca. 6 mm, ca. 4 mm in diam., abaxially smooth, 3-striate, not sulcate, endocarp leathery. Fl. May-Jul, fr. Aug-Nov.

Forests, forest margins, thickets, shrub forests on mountain slopes and in valleys, forest margins; (100-)200-1800(-2200) m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].

1 Leaf blade elliptic, oblong, or ovate-elliptic, apex acute to acuminate, acumen 3-4 mm.   38a var. triflora
+ Leaf blade obovate or oblong-elliptic, apex rounded, never acuminate.   38b var. kanehirae

Lower Taxa


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