44. Viola dissecta Ledebour, Fl. Altaic. 1: 255. 1829.
裂叶堇菜 lie ye jin cai
Herbs perennial, acaulescent, highly variable in height, 3-17 cm tall at anthesis, 4-34 cm tall at fruiting. Rhizome erect, short, 5-12 mm, 3-8 mm in diam., densely noded, often producing from lower part several thicker yellowish roots. Stipules of basal leaves glaucous to greenish, over 2/3 adnate to petioles, free part narrowly lanceolate, submembranous, margin remotely denticulate, apex acuminate; petioles highly variable in length and indumentum, 1.5-24 cm, those of young leaves often pubescent, glabrescent; blades of basal leaves orbicular, reniform, or broadly ovate, 1.2-9 × 1.5-10 cm, both surfaces white pubescent, later glabrescent or sparsely pubescent only adaxially, veins conspicuously raised and pubescent or glabrous abaxially, usually 3-, rarely 5-sect, segments linear, oblong, or narrowly ovate-lanceolate, 0.2-3 cm wide, margin entire or sparsely irregularly dentate, or subpinnatilobed, terminal lobes usually minutely ciliate, blade not divided, margin incised. Flowers purplish or purple-violet, large; pedicels usually subequaling or slightly exceeding leaves, usually shorter than leaves at fruiting, hairy or glabrous, 2-bracteolate above middle; bracteoles linear. Sepals ovate, oblong-ovate, or lanceolate, 4-7 mm, 3-veined, margin narrowly membranous, apex ± acute, basal auricles short, 1-1.5 mm, apex truncate, entire or 1- or 2-denticulate. Upper petals narrowly obovate, 8-13 × 6-9 mm, slightly curved upward in upper part, lateral ones oblong-obovate, 7-10 mm × ca. 6 mm, sparsely bearded, anterior one (including spur) 1.4- 2.2 cm; spur conspicuous, cylindric, 4-8 mm, 2-3 mm in diam., apex obtuse and slightly enlarged. Anthers 1.5-2 mm, appendage of connectives 1.5-2 mm, spur of anterior 2 stamens long, 3-5 mm, slender, 0.5-0.7 mm in diam. Ovary ovoid-globose, ca. 1.8 mm, glabrous; styles clavate, 2-2.5 mm, slightly slender at base and slightly geniculate forward; stigmas slightly thickened and margined on lateral sides and abaxially, margins spreading, shortly beaked in front, with a conspicuous stigma hole at tip of beak. Capsule oblong or ellipsoid, 7-18 mm, apex acute, pericarp hard, glabrous. Fl. Apr-Sep, fr. May-Oct.
Grasslands in logged forest areas and on mountain slopes, mixed forest margins, thickets, field margins, roadsides; below 3000 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, N Sichuan [Korea, Mongolia, Russia].