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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 13 | Violaceae | Viola

29. Viola formosana Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo. 22: 28. 1906.

台湾堇菜 tai wan jin cai

Herbs acaulescent. Rhizome erect, short, stout, usually with long stolons; stolons rooting at ends and producing dense rosettes of leaves and flowers. Leaves basal; stipules adnate to petioles only at base, free part lanceolate, margin fimbriate or erose; petioles slender, 1-15 cm, glabrous or sparsely puberulous; leaf blade abaxially greenish purple or glaucous, broadly triangular-cordate or cordate to orbicular, 1-4 × 1-4 cm, both surfaces glabrous or sparsely puberulous, sometimes puberulous along teeth, base deeply cordate, margin crenate, apex acute to rounded or obtuse. Flowers violet to white with darker veins, 1.5-2 cm in diam.; pedicels longer, sometimes to 15 cm, glabrous or puberulous, 2-bracteolate above middle; bracteoles subulate. Sepals narrowly lanceolate, 3-5 × 0.5-1.5 mm, apex acuminate, basal auricles shorter, 0.5-1 mm, glabrous. Upper petals subequaling lateral ones, ovate, ca. 1.2 cm, lateral ones glabrous, base cuneate, apex emarginate, anterior one larger, ca. 1.5 cm, apex deeply emarginate or shallowly 2-lobed; spur 5-7 mm, slightly curved. Styles nearly erect; stigmas narrowly margined on lateral sides and abaxially, shortly beaked in front. Capsule globose to ellipsoid, 4-6 mm, glabrous. Seeds ovoid, ca. 1 mm.

● Mountain forests, mountains, grassy slopes; 1200-2500 m. Taiwan.

1 Leaf blade 1-3 × 1-3 cm, broadly cordate to orbicular, apex acute to rounded or obtuse, petiole 1-10 cm.   29a var. formosana
+ Leaf blade 1.5-4 × 1-4 cm, triangular-cordate, apex acute, petiole to 15 cm.   29b var. kawakamii


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