12. Viola grypoceras A. Gray in Perry, Narr. Exped. China Japan. 2: Append. 308. 1856.
紫花堇菜 zi hua jin cai
Viola grayi Franchet & Savatier var. candida H. Boissieu; V. grypoceras var. barbata W. Becker; V. grypoceras var. pubescens Nakai; V. leveillei H. Boissieu; V. sylvestris Lamarck var. candida (H. Boissieu) H. Léveillé; V. sylvestris var. grypoceras (A. Gray) Maximowicz.
Herbs perennial, with developed tap root. Rhizome erect, brown, short, robust, densely noded. Stems several, erect, obliquely ascending, or nearly procument or creeping, 5-20 cm tall at anthesis, to 30 cm tall at fruiting, glabrous or puberulous. Stipules brown, narrowly lanceolate, 1-1.5 cm × 1-2 mm, margin fimbriate-dentate, teeth 2-5 mm, apex acuminate; petioles of basal leaves to 8 cm, those of cauline leaves shorter, puberulous; blades of basal leaves cordate or broadly cordate, 1-4 × 1-3.5 cm, both surfaces glabrous or subglabrous, rarely puberulous abaxially, with dense brown glandular dots, base narrowly sinuate, margin obtusely serrate, apex obtuse or ± acute; blades of cauline leaves triangular-cordate or narrowly ovate-cordate, 1-6 cm, base shallowly sinuate or broadly triangular. Flowers purplish to white, fragrant; pedicels produced from base of stem or cauline leaf axils, 6-11 cm, much exceeding leaves, with 2 linear bracteoles above middle. Sepals lanceolate, ca. 7 mm, with brown glandular dots, apex acute, basal auricles ca. 2 mm, apex truncate, shallowly dentate. Petals obovate-oblong, with brown glandular dots, margin repand, lateral petals glabrous, anterior one 1.5-2 cm (spur included); spur 6-8 mm, ca. 2 mm in diam., usually curved downward, rarely straight; 2 anterior stamens long spurred, spur suberect. Ovary glabrous; styles slightly geniculate at base, gradually thickened toward top and clavate; stigmas not papillose, curved forward, forming a short beak, with a broad stigma hole at tip of beak. Capsule ellipsoid, ca. 1 cm, with dense brown glandular dots, apex acuminate. Fl. Mar-May, fr. May-Aug. 2n = 20*.
Grassy slopes, thickets; below 2400 m. Anhui, Fujian, SE Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, E Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea].
In FRPS (51: 31. 1991), the name Viola faurieana W. Becker was misapplied to this species.
One of us (Ohba) prefers to treat plants with stems nearly procumbent or creeping as Viola grypoceras var. exilis (Miquel) Nakai.