21. Viola hirta Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 934. 1753.
硬毛堇菜 ying mao jin cai
Herbs perennial, acaulescent, 5-15 cm tall. Rhizome brownish, robust, densely noded, often branched in upper part, sometimes with shortened, suberect flagellate branches. Leaves basal; stipules lanceolate, 1-2 cm, apex long acuminate, margin shortly fimbriate and glandular; petiole 3-7 cm, densely puberulous; leaf blade smaller at anthesis, ovate or ovate-cordate, 1.5-2.5 × 1-2 cm, both surfaces puberulous, base shallowly cordate to deeply cordate, margin obtusely serrate, apex rounded or ± acute. Petiole after anthesis to 10 cm; leaf blade accrescent after anthesis, oblong-ovate or suborbicular, to 6 cm, base deeply cordate. Flowers deep purple, large, not fragrant; pedicels usually longer than blades, puberulous, with 2 linear bracteoles below middle. Sepals oblong, apex obtuse, basal auricles short, base rounded, margin sparsely fimbriate and glandular. Petals oblong-obovate, lateral ones bearded, anterior one emarginate at apex, 1.5-1.7 cm (spur included); spur red-purple, ca. 5 mm, apex obtuse, usually curved upward; spurs of 2 anterior stamens ca. 4 mm, slender. Ovary globose, puberulous; styles slender and slightly curved forward at base, thickened upward, apically curved and with a hooked beak, with a smaller stigma hole at tip of beak. Capsule globose, puberulous. Fl. Apr-May. 2n = 20.
Forest margins, grasslands, thickets; 1100-1700 m. Xinjiang [Russia; Europe].