54. Viola kunawarensis Royle, Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. 75. t. 18. 1839.
西藏堇菜 xi zang jin cai
Viola kunawarensis var. angustifolia W. Becker; V. kunawarensis f. longifolia C. J. Wang; V. thianschanica Maximowicz.
Herbs perennial, dwarf, acaulescent, 2.5-6 cm tall. Rhizome short, robust, densely noded; roots brownish or glaucous, conic, long, slender, usually simple. Leaves basal, rosulate; stipules whitish, 1/2-2/3 adnate to petioles, membranous, free part lanceolate, margin sparsely glandular fimbriate, apex acuminate; petiole slightly longer than or nearly as long as leaf blade; leaf blade ovate, elliptic, or oblong, 0.5-2 cm × 2-5 mm, thickly papery, both surfaces glabrous, midvein conspicuously raised, base cuneate or broadly cuneate, slightly decurrent, margin entire or remotely and shallowly crenate, apex obtuse. Flowers deep blue-purple, small; pedicels straight, slightly longer than or nearly as long as leaves, slender, 2-bracteolate slightly above middle; bracteoles nearly opposite, linear or narrowly lanceolate, sparsely glandular-fimbriate along lower margin, apex acuminate. Sepals oblong or ovate-lanceolate, 3-4 × 1-1.5 mm, apex obtuse, basal auricles very short, 3-veined, margin narrowly membranous, apex obtuse. Petals oblong-obovate, 7-10 mm, base narrow, apex obtuse, lateral ones glabrous, anterior one slightly shorter, white veined; spur saccate, very short, slightly longer than basal auricles of sepals or not. Anthers ca. 1.5 mm, connective appendages ca. 1 mm, spur of 2 anterior stamens very short, only ca. 0.4 mm. Ovary ovoid-globose, ca. 1.5 mm, smooth, glabrous; styles clavate, base conspicuously geniculate, apex obtuse, very shortly beaked in front, with a smaller stigma hole at tip of beak. Capsule ovoid-orbicular, 5-7 mm. Fl. May-Jul, fr. Jul-Aug. 2n = 20*.
Alpine or subalpine meadows, subalpine thickets; 2900-4800 m. Gansu, Qinghai, NW Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang [Afghanistan, N India, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, W Mongolia, Nepal, Russia, Tajikistan].