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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 13 | Violaceae | Viola

49. Viola mandshurica W. Becker, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54, Beibl. 120: 179. 1917.

东北堇菜 dong bei jin cai

Viola alisoviana Kiss f. intermedia (Kitagawa) Takenouchi; V. hsinganensis Takenouchi; V. mandshurica f. albiflora P. Y. Fu & Y. C. Teng; V. mandshurica f. ciliata (Nakai) F. Maekawa; V. mandshurica var. ciliata Nakai; V. mandshurica f. glabra (Nakai) Hiyama ex Maekawa; V. mandshurica var. glabra Nakai; V. mandshurica f. macrantha (Maximowicz) Nakai & Kitagawa; V. oblongosagittata Nakai f. ishizakii Yamamoto; V. patrinii Candolle ex Gingins f. glabra (Nakai) F. Maekawa; V. patrinii var. macrantha Maximowicz; V. philippica Cavanilles f. intermedia (Kitagawa) Kitagawa; V. rhodosepala Kitagawa; V. yedoensis Makino f. intermedia Kitagawa.

Herbs perennial, acaulescent, 6-18 cm tall. Rhizome erect, dark brown, short, 5-12 mm, densely noded, often producing from a single point several robust brown long roots; roots obliquely descending or sometimes slightly horizontal, usually smooth. Leaves 3-5 or numerous, basal; stipules membranous, lower ones scalelike, brown, upper ones brownish, purplish, or glaucous, over 2/3 adnate to petiole, free part linear-lanceolate, apex acuminate, margin remotely denticulate or subentire; petiole 2.5-8 cm, narrowly winged in upper part, wing conspicuously broadened after anthesis, puberulous or glabrous; leaf blade oblong, ligulate, or ovate-lanceolate, lower ones usually smaller and narrowly ovate, 2-6 × 0.5-1.5 cm, accrescent after anthesis, narrowly triangular, elliptic-lanceolate, or slightly hastate, to 10 × 5 cm, broadest in lowest part, both surfaces glabrous or sparsely puberulous, midvein conspicuously raised abaxially, base truncate or broadly cuneate, decurrent to petiole, margin remotely and shallowly repand-crenate or sometimes subentire in lower part, apex obtuse or rounded. Flowers purple-violet or purplish, sometimes white, ca. 2 cm in diam.; pedicels long, usually exceeding leaves, slender, glabrous or puberulous, usually 2-bracteolate below or near middle; bracteoles linear. Sepals ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, 5-7 mm, apex acuminate, basal auricles short, 1.5-2 mm, broad, 3-veined, margin narrowly membranous, apex rounded or truncate, usually not dentate. Upper petals obovate, 1.1-1.3 cm × 5-8 mm, lateral ones oblong-obovate, 1.1-1.5 cm × 4-6 mm, distinctly or sparsely bearded, anterior one 1.5-2.3 cm (spur included); spur cylindric, long, 5-10 mm, robust, apex rounded, curved upward or straight. Appendage of connectives ca. 1.5 mm; anthers ca. 2 mm; spur of 2 anterior stamens 4-6 mm. Ovary ovoid-globose, ca. 2.5 mm, glabrous; styles clavate, base slender and geniculate forward, thicker in upper part; stigmas slightly thickened on lateral sides and abaxially and with erect, thin margins, shortly beaked in front, beak obliquely ascending, with a larger stigma hole at tip. Capsule oblong, 1-1.5 cm, glabrous, apex acute. Seeds brownish red, numerous, ovoid-globose, ca. 1.5 mm, glabrous. Fl. Apr-May, fr. May-Sep. 2n = 24, 48*.

Grasslands, grassy slopes, thickets, forest margins, sparse forests, fields, sandy places along river banks; below 1000 m. Anhui, Fujian, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shandong, Taiwan [Japan, Korea, Russia].


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