64. Viola mongolica Franchet, Pl. David. 1: 42. 1884.
蒙古堇菜 meng gu jin cai
Viola hebeiensis J. W. Wang & T. G. Ma; V. yamatsutae Ishidoya ex Kitagawa; V. yezoensis Maximowicz var. hebeiensis (J. W. Wang & T. G. Ma) J. W. Wang & J. Yang ["hopeiensis"].
Herbs perennial, acaulescent, to 15 cm tall. Rhizome erect or obliquely ascending, 0.5-2 cm, robust, to 0.5 cm thick, with numerous brownish robust roots. Leaves basal; stipules greenish, 1/2 adnate to petioles, free part lanceolate, margin sparsely and shortly fimbriate-dentate, apex acute; petiole 3-4 cm, to 12 cm at fruiting, puberulous, narrowly winged; blade ovate or long ovate, 2-5 × 3-4 cm, to 8 × 4.5 cm at fruiting, both surfaces puberulous, base deeply cordate, sometimes shallowly cordate, margin shallowly serrate, apex acute or obtuse. Flowers white, throat yellowish green, long pedicellate; pedicels robust, usually exceeding leaves, 6-8 cm, puberulous, 2-bracteolate in or above middle; bracteoles linear, 1-1.5 cm, margin sparsely pilose. Sepals lanceolate, usually pilose, 1.1-1.3 cm (basal auricles included), 3-4 mm wide, apex acute; basal auricles conspicuous, 3-4 mm, apex deeply or shallowly emarginate. Upper petals obovate, ca. 1.2 × 0.8 cm, base narrowed and clawed, lateral ones oblong-obovate, ca. 1.3 × 0.6 cm, sparsely bearded and yellowish at throat, anterior one 1.8-2 cm (spur included), with 5-7 dark veins, apex obtuse; spur cylindric, robust, 5-7 mm, ca. 2.5 mm thick, apex obtuse, usually curved upward or straight. Anthers subequaling membranous apical appendages of connectives, ca. 2 mm; spur of anterior stamens narrowly linear, ca. 5 mm, usually curved near apex. Ovary glabrous; styles usually erect at base, thicker in upper part; stigmas narrowly margined on lateral sides and behind, shortly and thickly beaked in front, with a larger stigma hole at tip of beak. Capsule oblong, ca. 1 cm. Fl. Apr-May, fr. May-Oct.
● Broad-leaved forests, thickets on mountains, grasslands on mountain slopes; (200-)800-2800 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi.
In FRPS (51: 44. 1991), the name Viola yezoensis Maximowicz was misapplied to this species.