92. Viola muehldorfii Kiss, Bot. Közlem. 19: 92. 1921.
大黄花堇菜 da huang hua jin cai
Viola lasiostipes Nakai.
Herbs perennial. Rhizome procumbent, yellow-brown to whitish, long, slender, with small, dry, white membranous scales, and white rootlets. Stems erect, simple, 20-60 cm tall, spreading white villous or subglabrous in lower part, usually with 1 small, white, ovate, membranous scale at base. Basal leaves 1-3, petiole to 10 cm; leaf blade cordate or reniform, both surfaces sparsely puberulous, more densely puberulous on veins abaxially, base cordate, margin serrate and ciliate, apex mucronate. Cauline leaves usually 3, rarely 4; stipules free, opposite, ovate, margin entire or glandular serrate, apex acute; petiole of lower one ca. 3 cm, densely minutely villous, blade of lower one orbicular-cordate, ca. 4 × 4.5 cm, base broadly cordate, apex acuminate; upper two short petiolate or subsessile, leaf blade of upper two at apex of stem, subopposite, ovate, both surfaces white puberulous, base shallowly cordate, apex acuminate or acute. Flowers in second leaf axil at apex of stem, golden-yellow, 1.5-2 cm; pedicels glabrous, 2-bracteolate in upper part; bracteoles broadly ovate. Sepals narrowly ovate or lanceolate, ca. 8 mm, usually glabrous, 3-veined, margin entire, basal auricles short, ca. 0.3 mm. Petals obovate, purple striate, lateral petals inside barbate at base, anterior one subspatulate, 1.5-2 cm (spur included); spur ca. 2 mm, stout, apex obtuse; spur of anterior stamens undeveloped, short, broad. Ovary glabrous; styles gradually thickened upward; stigmas capitate, with a series of white beards on each lateral side, shortly beaked in central part, with a rounded stigma hole at tip of beak. Capsule ellipsoid, ca. 7 mm, apex ± acute, usually with persistent style. Seeds glaucous, globose, ca. 2 mm in diam., with white appendage. Fl. May-Aug, fr. Jul-Sep.
Mixed needle-leaved and broad-leaved forests, forest margins, streamsides; 300-500 m. Heilongjiang [Korea, Russia].