41. Viola rossii Hemsley, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 23: 54. 1886.
辽宁堇菜 liao ning jin cai
Herbs perennial, acaulescent. Rhizome erect or obliquely ascending, deep brown, 2-4 cm, 3-4 mm in diam., sometimes branched in upper part, densely noded, with numerous brown rootlets at nodes. Leaves basal; stipules free, greenish, lanceolate or narrowly ovate, 5-8 mm, submembranous when dry, margin entire or remotely denticulate, apex acuminate; petiole soft, very narrowly winged, to 14 cm after anthesis; leaf blade abaxially greenish, adaxially green, broadly ovate or subreniform, 2-6 × 2-5 cm, abaxially densely white puberulous, gradually less hairy on old leaves, adaxially sparsely white puberulous at base and along margin, base shallowly cordate, rarely deeply cordate, auricles often involute, margin densely serrulate, apex acuminate. Flowers purple, large, long pedicellate; pedicels subequaling leaves, glabrous, 2-bracteolate slightly above middle; bracteoles opposite, lanceolate. Sepals ovate or oblong-ovate, ca. 7 mm, glabrous, basal auricles short, apex obtuse or truncate, remotely dentate. Petals obovate, lateral ones sparsely bearded or glabrous, anterior one spatulate, 1.8-2 cm (spur included); spur saccate, 3-4 mm, ca. 4 mm in diam.; spur of 2 anterior stamens shorter, subequaling anthers, ca. 3 mm, ca. 1.5 mm in diam., apex slender. Ovary glabrous; styles slightly geniculate at base, slightly thickly margined on lateral sides, slightly flat in central part, shortly beaked in front. Capsule ellipsoid, large, ca. 1.2 cm, glabrous, apex mucronate. Seeds glaucous, ovoid-globose, ca. 2.8 mm, ca. 1.8 mm in diam., smooth. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Jun-Aug. 2n = 24.
Mixed needle-leaved and broad-leaved forests, broad-leaved forests, forest margins, thickets, grasslands on mountain slopes; 100-1300 m. Anhui, Hunan, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea].