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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 13 | Violaceae | Viola

38. Viola thomsonii Oudemans in Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi. 3: 74. 1867.

毛堇菜 mao jin cai

Herbs perennial, acaulescent. Rhizome long, longest to 10 cm, stout, 4-6 mm in diam.; internodes 2-4 cm. Stolon long, to 15 cm, slender, flagellate, with alternate small leaves, often producing new plant at top. Leaves basal; stipules deep brown, lanceolate or broadly lanceolate, 1-1.5 cm, dry membranous, margin fimbriate-dentate, glabrous; petioles unequal in length, 6-11 cm, very narrowly winged in upper part, glabrous; lower leaves cordate, smaller, upper ones larger, ovate-cordate, 6-8 × 4-4.5 cm, both surfaces sparsely white puberulous or glabrous adaxially, base deeply cordate, margin densely and shallowly crenate, apex acuminate. Flowers white or light violet; pedicels usually not exceeding leaves, glabrous, 2-bracteolate tightly near flower; bracteoles brown, linear, 1-1.3 cm, dry membranous. Sepals lanceolate, 4.5-5.5 × 1.2-1.8 mm, apex acute, basal auricles longer, ca. 2 mm, apex shallowly 2- or 3-dentate, sparsely ciliate, 3-veined. Petals oblong-obovate, ca. 1.5 cm, lateral ones shortly bearded, anterior one shorter, inside purple striate, shortly spurred; spur saccate, shorter than basal auricles of sepals, ca. 2 mm in diam.; spur of 2 anterior stamens shortly angular, subequaling anthers. Ovary ovoid-globose, glabrous; styles clavate; stigmas narrowly margined on lateral sides, shortly beaked in front, beak erect, with smaller stigma hole at tip. Capsule ellipsoid. Seeds dark brown, globose, 7-10 mm. Fl. Apr-Jun, fr. Jul-Aug.

Mountain forests, forest margins, stream valleys, shaded and moist places along roadsides; 800-2400 m. SE Xizang, NW and S Yunnan [Bhutan, E India, Myanmar, Nepal].


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