52. Viola variegata Fischer ex Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 1: 240. 1821.
斑叶堇菜 ban ye jin cai
Viola tenuicornis W. Becker subsp. primorskajensis W. Becker; V. variegata f. viridis (Kitagawa) P. Y. Fu & Y. C. Teng; V. variegata var. viridis Kitagawa.
Herbs perennial, acaulescent, 3-12 cm tall. Rhizome usually short, 4-15 mm, slender, densely noded, with several whitish or brownish long roots. Leaves basal, rosulate; stipules greenish or glaucous, submembranous, 2/3 adnate to petioles, free part lanceolate, margin remotely glandular fimbriate-dentate, apex acuminate; petioles unequal in length, 1-7 cm, narrowly winged or wingless in upper part, with short stiff hairs or glabrous; leaf blade abaxially usually purplish red, adaxially dark green or green, white variegated (punctate-striate) along veins, orbicular, 1.2-5 × 1-4.5 cm, both surfaces often covered with short stiff hairs, sometimes sparsely hairy or subglabrous, base conspicuously cordate, margin obtusely dentate, apex rounded or obtuse. Flowers red-purple or dark purple, usually light colored in lower part, 1.2-2.2 cm; pedicels usually purplish red, unequal in length, exceeding or slightly shorter than leaves, shortly hairy or subglabrous, 2-bracteolate at middle; bracteoles linear. Sepals usually purplish, oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 5-6 mm, 3-veined, margin narrowly membranous or ciliate, apex acute, basal auricles shorter, 1-1.5 mm, with short stiff hairs or glabrous adaxially, apex truncate or remotely and shallowly dentate. Petals obovate, 7-14 mm, lateral ones sparsely bearded or glabrous, anterior one white and violet-striate at base, 1.2-2.2 cm (spur included); spur cylindric, 3-8 mm, robust or slender, apex obtuse, straight or slightly curved upward. Anthers and appendages of connectives ca. 2 mm; spur of 2 anterior stamens long, to 4 mm, slender, ca. 0.3 mm in diam. Ovary subglobose, usually with short stiff hairs or subglabrous; styles clavate, base slightly geniculate, gradually thickened upward; stigmas conspicuously thickened on lateral sides and abaxially, shortly beaked in front, with a stigma hole open upward at tip of beak. Capsule ellipsoid, ca. 7 mm, glabrous or sparsely short hairy, globose and usually with short stiff hairs when young. Seeds brownish, small, ca. 1.5 mm, shortly appendaged. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Jun-Sep. 2n = 24.
Grasslands on mountain slopes, forests, thickets, rock crevices in shaded places; 300-1700 m. Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shanxi [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia].