11. Pyrola japonica Klenze ex Alefeld, Linnaea. 28: 57. 1856.
日本鹿蹄草 ri ben lu ti cao
Pyrola asarifolia var. japonica (Klenze ex Alefeld) Miquel; P. incarnata (de Candolle) Freyn var. japonica (Klenze ex Alefeld) Koidzumi; P. japonica var. subaphylla (Maximowicz) Andres; P. japonica f. subaphylla (Maximowicz) Ohwi; P. rotundifolia Linnaeus var. albiflora Maximowicz; P. rotundifolia f. subaphylla (Maximowicz) Makino; P. subaphylla Maximowicz.
Herbs 5–30 cm tall. Rhizome descending and sometimes creeping, somewhat thick, 0.8–2 mm in diam., sparsely branched; roots somewhat thick, to 0.5 mm in diam. Stems ascending, sometimes branched. Leaves appearing radical, 3–6, in 1 or 2 subverticils of 1–3 each; petiole 3–8 cm; leaf blade pale green or reddish abaxially, deep green with pale or white veins adaxially, elliptic, broadly elliptic, or obovate, rarely orbicular, (3–) 4–7 × 2.5–4.5 cm, somewhat thick, base rounded, obtuse, or subacute, margin rather sparsely and obscurely serrulate, apex rounded to obtuse. Scape erect, (6–)15–30 cm tall, with 3–6 scales near base; scales narrowly to broadly lanceolate or oblanceolate, costate, up to 2 leaflike scales and sometimes 1 smaller, lanceolate scale near middle; raceme rather sparsely 5–12-flowered, 6–10 cm. Pedicel with bracts broadly linear to lanceolate, 5–8 mm, apex long acuminate. Flowers drooping, zygomorphic, 10–12 mm in diam. Sepals broadly lanceolate to narrowly ovate, (1–)2.5–5(–6) × (2–)4–6 mm, apex acute. Petals ovate-elliptic, 3.5–4 × 1.6–2 mm, apex acuminate. Filaments curved upward; anthers creamy white, orange-yellow near apex, 2–3 mm, prolonged into terminal tubules, opening by terminal pores. Style exserted, sometimes scarcely so, curved to somewhat slightly so, 1.1–1.3 cm, dilated at apex but without ring-shaped protuberance; stigma with a collar and 5 erect cylindric lobes. Capsules 7–8 mm in diam. Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Sep–Oct.
Common, mainly in dry forests; sea level to 1500 m. Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Taiwan [Japan, Korea].