76. Gentiana scabra Bunge, Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 2: 543. 1835.
龙胆 long dan
Gentiana fortunei J. D. Hooker; G. scabra subsp. australis M. Y. Liou.
Perennials 30-60 cm tall. Stems apically papillate. Stem leaves sessile; lowermost leaves scalelike, 4-6 mm; middle to upper leaves linear-lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, or ovate, 2-7 × (0.4-)2-3 cm, base rounded to subcordate, margin scabrous and revolute, apex acuminate to acute, veins 3-5. Upper leaves slightly smaller, shorter than flowers and surrounding their bases. Inflorescences 1 to many flowered, terminal or in axillary clusters, axillary clusters rarely on pedunclelike branches; bracts linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, 2-2.5 cm. Flowers sessile. Calyx tube 1-1.2 cm, entire; lobes spreading to erect, linear, 8-10 mm, margin scabrous, apex acute. Corolla blue-purple, sometimes with yellow-green spots in throat, tubular-campanulate to funnelform, 4-5 cm; lobes ovate to ovate-orbicular, 7-9 mm, apex rounded and apiculate; plicae obliquely and narrowly triangular, 3-4 mm, apex acute or slightly 2cleft. Stamens inserted at middle of corolla tube; filaments 0.9-1.2 cm; anthers free, narrowly ellipsoid, 3.5-4.5 mm. Style 3-4 mm. Capsules 2-2.5 cm; gynophore to 1.5 cm. Seeds 1.8-2.5 mm. Fl. and fr. May-Nov.
River banks, grassland and roadside slopes, moist meadows, scrub, forest margins, forests; 400-1700 m. Fujian, Jiangsu, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, E Russia]
Gentiana scabra var. buergeri (Miquel) Maximowicz occurs in Japan and differs from var. scabra in having calyx lobes linear-lanceolate and longer than tube.