3. Arundinella setosa Trinius, Gram. Panic. 63. 1826.
刺芒野古草 ci mang ye gu cao
Perennial, tufted from a short rhizome with scaly buds. Culms erect or base geniculate, hard, (35–)60–180 cm tall, 1.5–4 mm in diam., sometimes branched, 3–7(–9)-noded, nodes glabrous. Leaf sheaths shorter than internodes, glabrous or infrequently tuberculate-hispid; leaf blades linear, 10–40(–70) cm × 3–9 mm, usually glabrous, sometimes tuberculate-hispid; ligule ca. 0.5 mm. Panicle open or somewhat contracted, 10–45 cm; central axis and branches scabrid; branches 5–20 cm, stiffly ascending or spreading, solitary or fasciculate, loosely spiculate; pedicels scabrid, apex usually with long stiff hairs. Spikelets 5–6.5 mm, green tinged purple; glumes glabrous or rarely setose, scaberulous along veins; lower glume 4.5–5.5 mm, 3 (–5)-veined; upper glume 5-veined; lower floret staminate or barren, shorter than glumes or equaling lower glume; upper floret 2.5–3 mm, lemma apex awned, awn flanked by 2 slender erect bristles; bristles mostly 1–2.5 mm; awn geniculate with brown twisted column, 6–10 mm; callus hairs 1/4–1/3 length of lemma. Fl. and fr. Aug–Dec.
Open forests, forest margins, grassy hillsides; 200–2300 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia].
This is a variable species. The culms are slender or stout, and the leaves are occasionally hairy. The nodes are almost always glabrous, but can be bearded in very hairy specimens. The stiff bristles at the tips of the pedicels are usually obvious, but may sometimes be scanty or even absent. The length of the lateral bristles at the lemma tip is very variable. The bristles are frequently about as long as the column of the awn, but may be considerably shorter and in extreme cases almost absent. Forms without obvious bristles may be separated at varietal rank.