8. Echinochloa caudata Roshevitz in Komarov, Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. 1, Fl. Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 2: 91. 1936.
长芒稗 chang mang bai
Echinochloa crusgalli (Linnaeus) P. Beauvois subsp. caudata (Roshevitz) Tzvelev; E. crusgalli var. caudata (Roshevitz) Kitagawa.
Annual. Culms forming small dense tufts, 1–2 m tall. Leaf sheaths glabrous to tuberculate-hairy; leaf blades broadly linear, 10–40 × 1–2 cm, glabrous, margins thickened and scabrous. Inflorescence slightly nodding, spikelets dense, 10–25 × 1.5–4 cm, axis scabrous and bearing long tubercle-based setae. Spikelets purplish, ovate-elliptic, 2.5–4 mm; lower glume 1/3–2/5 as long as spikelet, acuminate; upper glume equaling spikelet, 5-veined, with a stout 0.1–0.2 mm mucro; lower lemma herbaceous, loosely hispid along veins, awn 3–5 cm; upper lemma coriaceous. Fl. and fr. summer–autumn.
Streams, fields, roadsides. Anhui, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Nei Mongol, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia (Far East)].
This is a segregate from Echinochloa crusgalli with a very dense, purple inflorescence and long awns.