1. Holcus lanatus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1048. 1753.
绒毛草 rong mao cao
Avena lanata (Linnaeus) Koeler; Notholcus lanatus (Linnaeus) Nash ex Hitchcock.
Perennial, softly hairy. Culms tufted, erect or geniculate at base, 30–80 cm tall, pubescent, 4–5-noded. Leaf sheaths loose, tomentose with reflexed hairs; leaf blades flat, 6–18 cm, 3–9 mm wide, soft, both surfaces pubescent, apex acute; ligule 2–3 mm, truncate or toothed. Panicle lanceolate to oblong or ovate in outline, rather loose to very dense, 3–12 cm; branches narrowly ascending, pubescent. Spikelets oblong or gaping, 3.5–6 mm, pale grayish green or purplish; glumes lanceolate, keel and veins hispidulous, surface scabrid or puberulent to villous, lower glume apex acute, upper glume wider and sometimes slightly longer than lower glume, apex mucronate; florets subequal, 2–2.5 mm; rachilla ca. 0.5 mm; lower lemma awnless, anthers 1.8–2 mm; upper lemma with hooked 1–2 mm awn, anthers ca. 1.5 mm. Fl. and fr. May–Oct.
Open ground, meadows, moist places; an adventive occasionally cultivated as a meadow grass. Jiangxi, Taiwan, Yunnan [native to Europe].
This European grass is now introduced as a weed in most temperate parts of the world.