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18. Chimonocalamus Hsueh & T. P. Yi, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 1(2): 75. 1979.

香竹属 xiang zhu shu

Authors: De-Zhu Li & Chris Stapleton

Sinarundinaria Nakai sect. Chimonocalamus (Hsueh & T. P. Yi) C. S. Chao & Renvoize, Kew Bull. 44: 353. 1989.

Shrubby or arborescent bamboos. Rhizomes short necked, pachymorph. Culms unicaespitose, erect; internodes terete, glabrous, cavity not filled with pith; nodes with slightly prominent supra-nodal ridge and a ring of root thorns especially dense at lower nodes. Branch complement 3 at mid-culm nodes, 3–5 at upper culm nodes, promontory absent. Culm sheaths deciduous, usually longer than internodes, sparsely setose; auricles absent or inconspicuous; blade erect or recurved, lanceolate or triangular. Leaves usually small; blade with inconspicuous transverse veins. Inflorescence ebracteate, semelauctant, an open racemose panicle initially terminal to leafy flowering branches. Spikelets robust, 4–12 flowered, followed by a sterile floret, pedicels long. Glumes 2; lemma many veined, mucronate. Palea slightly longer than lemma, 2-keeled, obtuse. Lodicules 3, transparent. Stamens 3; filaments free; anthers yellow. Ovary glabrous, appendage absent; style 1; stigmas 2, plumose. Caryopsis slender, beaked. New shoots Jun–Jul, fl. Mar–May.

Eleven species: E Himalayas, Myanmar, SW China (S Yunnan); nine species (eight endemic) in China.

Most species in this genus produce delicious bamboo shoots and are known as "xiang zhu" (香竹), meaning "fragrant bamboo." The culms are robust and are widely used in Yunnan for construction and agricultural tools. Chimonocalamus pallens and C. dumosus are attractive, subtropical ornamentals and have been introduced into gardens.

1 Nodal sheath scar with a ring of tawny hairs; culm sheath blade 0.3–3 cm, twisted when dry; leaf blade lanceolate, broader than 1.2 cm   1 C. griffithianus
+ Nodes glabrous; sheath blade usually longer than 3 cm, straight; leaf blade linear-lanceolate, mostly narrower than 1.5 cm   (2)
2 (1) Apex of culm sheath 2–4 cm wide, convex to projected, base of blade 1–2 cm wide, glabrous   (3)
+ Apex of culm sheath narrower than 1.5 cm, truncate or concave; sheath blade less than 1 cm at base, slender, usually hairy   (4)
3 (2) Culms slightly quadrangular, initially purple, scabrous; sheaths densely tawny hairy; leaf blade gray-green; oral setae developed.   2 C. delicatus
+ Culms terete, initially gray-green, glabrous; sheaths hairy; leaf blade green; oral setae absent or scarce.   3 C. pallens
4 (2) Culm sheath ligule conspicuous, 0.8–1.8 cm   (5)
+ Culm sheath ligule short, less than 0.5–0.7(–1.2) cm   (6)
5 (4) Culm sheath ligule divided; leaf sheath auricles absent.   4 C. longiligulatus
+ Culm sheath ligule fimbriate; leaf sheath auricles present.   5 C. fimbriatus
6 (4) Culm sheaths densely hairy, margins ciliate; root thorns short, robust, dense.   6 C. montanus
+ Culm sheaths sparsely hairy, margins glabrous; root thorns longer but sparse   (7)
7 (6) Apex of culm sheaths 11–13 mm wide; ligule 0.5–0.7 cm; culm sheath scars pubescent.   7 C. makuanensis
+ Apex of culm sheath ca. 4 mm wide; ligule less than 0.5 cm; culm sheath scars glabrous   (8)
8 (7) Arborescent bamboo, 4–6 m tall; young culms pubescent at nodes; internodes to 37 cm   8 C. longiusculus
+ Shrubby bamboo, 1.5–3 m tall; young culms white powdery, internodes to 16 cm.   9 C. dumosus

  • List of lower taxa


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