1. Larix griffithii J. D. Hooker, Himal. J. 1: 255-256, 2: 44, 481. 1854.
藏红杉 zang hong shan
Larix griffithiana Carriere; Pinus griffithiana (Carriere) Voss; P. griffithii (J. D. Hooker) Parlatore (1868), not M’Clelland (1854).
Trees to over 20 m tall; trunk to 80 cm d.b.h.; bark gray-brown or dark brown, deeply fissured longitudinally; long branchlets initially reddish brown, light brown, or yellowish brown; short branchlets 6-8 mm in diam., nearly smooth, with remnants of bud scales and rings of revolute scales bases; winter buds ovoid-globose or globose, not resinous. Leaves 2.5-5.5 cm × 1-1.8 mm, keeled abaxially and toward base adaxially. Seed cones maturing brown or light brown, cylindric or cylindric-ellipsoid, 5-11 × 2.2-3 cm. Seed scales obovate-square, ± flat, 1.1-1.4 × 1.1-1.4 cm at middle of cones, pubescent toward base abaxially, margin denticulate toward apex, apex truncate or slightly emarginate. Bracts ovate- or obovate-lanceolate, longer than seed scales, 5-7 mm at widest part, obviously reflexed. Seeds grayish white, with irregular purplish spots, obliquely obovoid, ca. 10 mm including wing. Pollination Apr-May, seed maturity Oct.
Mountains; 3000-4100 m. S and E Xizang [Bhutan, Nepal, Sikkim]
The timber is used for construction, pit props, railway sleepers, and making furniture, and the bark yields tannins. The tree is also used for afforestation.