4. Bolboschoenus maritimus (Linnaeus) Palla in Hallier & Brand, Syn. Deut. Schweiz. Fl., ed. 3. 3: 2531. 1905.
海滨三棱草 hai bin san leng cao
Scirpus maritimus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 51. 1753; Schoenoplectus maritimus (Linnaeus) Lye.
Rhizomes creeping, terminated by a small ovoid tuber. Culms 25-50[-150] cm tall, 3-angled, smooth. Leaf sheath fronts with veinless triangular to rhombic area at summit; leaf blade linear, 2-6[-12] mm wide, flat, ± stiff, apical ones longer than or as long as culm. Involucral bracts 2 or 3, leaflike, overtopping inflorescence. Inflorescences of 1-10 spikelets, capitate [rarely with short rays]. Spikelets ovoid to narrowly ovoid, 10-16 × 3.5-7 mm, many flowered. Glumes bright orangish brown to stramineous, oblong-ovate, 5-8 mm, membranous, abaxially ± pubescent, 1-veined costa excurrent into a 1-3 mm awn, apex 2-cleft. Perianth bristles 6, ca. 1/2 as long as nutlet, retrorsely scabrous, usually not persistent on nutlet. Stamens 3; anthers linear-oblong, 2-4 mm; connective apex conic, ca. 0.5 mm. Style slender; stigmas 2, ± as long as style. Nutlet dark brown, broadly obovoid, ca. 2.5 mm, biconvex [compressed 3-sided], shiny, apex rounded to truncate. Fl. and fr. Jun-Sep. 2n = 64, 104, 112.
Coastal marshes; near sea level. Taiwan, Xinjiang [Afghanistan, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; Africa, SW Asia, Atlantic Ocean islands, Europe, North and South America, Pacific islands].
This species is known in Taiwan from a single collection: Taiwan: "Takow," A. Henry 1818 (MO).